Difficulty retargeting every 2,016 blocks : Bitcoin

It so is an attack

Bcash price started pumping heavily well timed just when Bitcoin had its' dufficulty retarget on ~Nov. 10th. Bitcoin block creation is slowing down because miners get tricked into switching to Bcash by the pump.
Next Bitcoin retarget will take longer and longer this way.
The attack target is not the price, but the mem pool (and this way high TX fee) which is filling up quickly due to Bitcoin slow down.
No "spam transactions" are necessary for this - I don't even know what this is.
Not only Bitcoin is under attack, but all greedy ppl. who buy into this Bcash peak.
People claiming there is no attack are either blind or part of it.
submitted by SelaronX to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Live-updating view of the current Bitcoin difficulty epoch and estimated next difficulty retargeting.

Live-updating view of the current Bitcoin difficulty epoch and estimated next difficulty retargeting. submitted by archaeal to dataisbeautiful [link] [comments]

Will bitcoin hold till next difficulty retargeting? /r/Bitcoin

Will bitcoin hold till next difficulty retargeting? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Has somebody worked out when will the next Bitcoin Cash difficulty retargeting period likely be? /r/btc

Has somebody worked out when will the next Bitcoin Cash difficulty retargeting period likely be? /btc submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

10-01 08:12 - 'Next BCH retarget?' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/DevilsAdvertiser removed from /r/Bitcoin within 25-35min

'''
Last 30 hours since the retarget it said the next retarget will be +100% on fork.lol since a couple hours or so it suddenly says the complete opposite of -75% difficulty retarget.
Can anyone explain why and how?
'''
Next BCH retarget?
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: DevilsAdvertiser
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] Next BCH retarget?

The following post by DevilsAdvertiser is being replicated because the post has been silently removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/73kem9
The original post's content was as follows:
Last 30 hours since the retarget it said the next retarget will be +100% on fork.lol since a couple hours or so it suddenly says the complete opposite of -75% difficulty retarget.
Can anyone explain why and how?
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

Next BCH retarget? /r/Bitcoin

Next BCH retarget? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Why everybody is talking about Aug 1st, while next retarget is coming in less than 3 days, on Jul 26/27 night? /r/Bitcoin

Why everybody is talking about Aug 1st, while next retarget is coming in less than 3 days, on Jul 26/27 night? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

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submitted by ViralMedia007 to FREECoursesEveryday [link] [comments]

Introducing Reserve: Personal finance tools for bitcoiners.

Introducing Reserve: Personal finance tools for bitcoiners.
http://withreserve.com
🧅 http://g5aunrdeiakv5swpfbsaidmsflqc7uaeep3xd74ckukwhst7mjfzi4ad.onion
** SORRY I'M STILL FIGURING OUT WORDS **
THIS IS NOT A WALLET. IT'S FOR TRACKING YOUR TRANSACTIONS IN A WALLET-AGNOSTIC WAY. I'M LOOKING FOR BETTER WORDS THAN "DEPOSIT" and "WITHDRAW". MAYBE THESE ARE GOOD

https://preview.redd.it/v5avcoy2dac51.png?width=1902&format=png&auto=webp&s=882ab896d686523726634bdf29e470f4c18e9d51
I made an app to help us
  • set savings goals
  • track buys and the occasional sat spends
  • optimize tax burdens by drawing from the best tax lots
  • automatically budget for next year's taxes
  • manage our bitcoin finances regardless of wallets
I take privacy seriously and do NOT want any of your personally identifiable information.
  • When you sign up, I give you a random UUID and that's all I know about you.
  • Support is handled in-app. I don't want your email address.
  • This is more like a checkbook or spreadsheet than a wallet. There is no link to your transaction ids, this is intended to be a separate log.
  • I don't use third party cookies for retargeting advertising.
  • I don't track your IP address. Use the onion address & don't trust/verify.
This app will help me prove to the IRS that my Casa subscription only realized a $0.68 tax bill. Yes I will be flooding them with such minutia. Fuck that noise.
I'd love to hear from you & see if some of you are personal finance freaks like myself.
submitted by paboset to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Warning: Blockchain difficulty adjustment affecting price movements

Below are notable difficulty adjustments when hash rate fell and block times become slower for Bitcoin.
  1. 26 Mar 2020 [difficulty adjustment -15.95%, avg block time 11min 54secs]. On the 28th price crashed from $6674 to $6138 ( -8%).
  2. 8 Nov 2019 [difficulty adjustment -7.1%, avg block time 10min 46secs]. On the same day price crashed from $9234 to $8783 ( -4.88%).
  3. The next big adjustment was around Nov to Dec 2018 and there were 3 big adjustments with high block times.

Current situation:
We are 1 day 10 hours from the next difficulty adjustment. Projected difficulty adjustment is -5.61% (https://fork.lol/pow/retarget), which could indicate a small dip. However, take note that the date of last adjustment was the 5th and the 3rd halving was on the 11th, between the 5th to the 11th there was increased hashrate from miners trying to mine the final week of 12.5btc that offset the really slow block times after the halving. Therefore it will be the next difficulty adjustment after the one on the 20th that will completely reflect the slower block times after the halving. Currently the median block time taken on the 17th was around 14min (-28.5% difficulty adjustment).
For people who do not understand blockchain, basically with the Bitcoin 3rd halving, mining profitability fell for a lot of miners and they probably turned off their miners therefore the blockchain mining time became considerably slower which is reflected with slow transaction speed and higher fees as seen currently. Bitcoin sellers moving their BTC from wallet to an exchange are faced with slow transaction speed and therefore the sell pressure of BTC fell considerably which will attribute to the current price increase. There is a correlation between sell pressure and blockchain congestion (the size of the correlation is undetermined).
There is going to be a race. A race between BTC price hiking high enough to attract more miners to reduce avg block times versus the closing window of roughly 2 weeks before the next difficulty adjustment. If the price does not jump high enough, the next difficulty adjustment in the first week of June could signal a huge dip.
I am not an expert. I just did some research on the above and wanted to share with fellow Bitcoin compatriots so that we can tread with caution and not lose our shirts. I do not plan to short BTC but I will exit my BTC positions if I expect double digit negative difficulty adjustment in early June.
Please visit the original post here https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/gm23pe/warning_blockchain_difficulty_adjustment/
There are pictures in the original post as well as 2nd halving evidence with pics. I could not post pics here. If possible please upvote the original post, a lot of people downvote it. Not sure why people downvote it, maybe veterans attempting to hide information from newcomers to fleece them of their shirt.

Update 1:>! As of writing, I have opened a small short position on Bitcoin. Stop loss around 10k, estimated take profit around 8500. The reason is because the difficulty adjustment in the next 20 hours, even though is just -5% roughly is still significant. I direct you to look into all the difficulty adjustments in the last 2 years and you will know how rare it is. The ones I caught were all listed at the very top of the post. Since it is my first time shorting BTC, I take this as a learning opportunity so that I will have some experience to face the bigger difficulty adjustment in the first week of June. Analysis into execution, even in failure I am happy.!<
Update 2: The difficulty adjustment (DA) happened roughly 6 hours ago and the sell pressure from -6% DA did not seem to be affecting the market much. However, please take a look now at the estimation for the next DA.
On https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/ it is estimated to be -25%.
On https://fork.lol/pow/retarget estimated to be -18%.
On https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time the median block time for the last day was 16.8min.
My original proposition that the true DA of the halving can only be realized in the next DA stands and that it will be considerable. The increased sell pressure from that DA will be highly significant. That is why there is a race by current miners to get the BTC price up high enough to attract more miners to not have the DA drop too much.
Update 3: Current BTC price at $9100 ( ~39 hours after DA). Then again BTC could have dropped from all sorts of reason. However the coincidence with the DA and with all the past DA is just too high to simply shrug off as irrelevant. Anyways past result cannot predict future ones, stay safe with the trading. Will no longer check on this post.
References:
Difficulty adjustment dates taken from https://btc.com/stats/diff
Bitcoin graph history for price movement taken from coinmarketcap.
Median confirmation time (block time) taken from https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time

Credits to people who assisted the analysis:
kairepaire for pointing out faster block times between 5th-11th.
babies_eater for https://fork.lol/pow/retarget
moes_tavern_wifi for https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/
Pantamis for https://diff.cryptothis.com/
submitted by theforwardbrain to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Warning: Blockchain difficulty adjustment affecting price movement

Warning: Blockchain difficulty adjustment affecting price movement
Below are notable difficulty adjustments when hash rate fell and block times become slower for Bitcoin.
  1. 26 Mar 2020 [difficulty adjustment -15.95%, avg block time 11min 54secs]. On the 28th price crashed from $6674 to $6138 ( -8%).
  2. 8 Nov 2019 [difficulty adjustment -7.1%, avg block time 10min 46secs]. On the same day price crashed from $9234 to $8783 ( -4.88%).
  3. The next big adjustment was around Nov to Dec 2018 and there were 3 big adjustments with high block times.
  • 19 Dec 2018 [-9.56%, avg block time 11min 3secs]
  • 3 Dec 2018 [-15.13%, avg block time 11min 47secs]
  • 17 Nov 2018 [-7.39%, avg block time 10min 48secs]
  • There was huge drop off starting on 14th Nov all the way to a bottom on 14-15th Dec ($6351 to $3288 around -48%).

Current situation:
We are 1 day 10 hours from the next difficulty adjustment. Projected difficulty adjustment is -5.61% (https://fork.lol/pow/retarget), which could indicate a small dip. However, take note that the date of last adjustment was the 5th and the 3rd halving was on the 11th, between the 5th to the 11th there was increased hashrate from miners trying to mine the final week of 12.5btc that offset the really slow block times after the halving. Therefore it will be the next difficulty adjustment after the one on the 20th that will completely reflect the slower block times after the halving. Currently the median block time taken on the 17th was around 14min (-28.5% difficulty adjustment).

https://preview.redd.it/ysnv85wh0lz41.jpg?width=597&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e130b077f9dc2fc9d02666ef89e6f9249a05f535
For people who do not understand blockchain, basically with the Bitcoin 3rd halving, mining profitability fell for a lot of miners and they probably turned off their miners therefore the blockchain mining time became considerably slower which is reflected with slow transaction speed and higher fees as seen currently. Bitcoin sellers moving their BTC from wallet to an exchange are faced with slow transaction speed and therefore the sell pressure of BTC fell considerably which will attribute to the current price increase. There is a correlation between sell pressure and blockchain congestion (the size of the correlation is undetermined).
There is going to be a race. A race between BTC price hiking high enough to attract more miners to reduce avg block times versus the closing window of roughly 2 weeks before the next difficulty adjustment. If the price does not jump high enough, the next difficulty adjustment in the first week of June could signal a huge dip.
I am not an expert. I just did some research on the above and wanted to share with fellow Bitcoin compatriots so that we can tread with caution and not lose our shirts. I do not plan to short BTC but I will exit my BTC positions if I expect double digit negative difficulty adjustment in early June.

Bitcoin 2nd halving evidence:

2nd halving falls between the 5th and the 19th adjustment so it is only reflected on the 3rd of Aug difficulty adjustment ( -5.43%).

See the dip on the 3rd of August. Price fell from $600 to $533 about 11% drop.
Update 1:>! As of writing, I have opened a small short position on Bitcoin. Stop loss around 10k, estimated take profit around 8500. The reason is because the difficulty adjustment in the next 20 hours, even though is just -5% roughly is still significant. I direct you to look into all the difficulty adjustments in the last 2 years and you will know how rare it is. The ones I caught were all listed at the very top of the post. Since it is my first time shorting BTC, I take this as a learning opportunity so that I will have some experience to face the bigger difficulty adjustment in the first week of June. Analysis into execution, even in failure I am happy.!<
Update 2: The difficulty adjustment (DA) happened roughly 6 hours ago and the sell pressure from -6% DA did not seem to be affecting the market much. However, please take a look now at the estimation for the next DA.
On https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/ it is estimated to be -25%.
On https://fork.lol/pow/retarget estimated to be -18%.
On https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time the median block time for the last day was 16.8min.
My original proposition that the true DA of the halving can only be realized in the next DA stands and that it will be considerable. The increased sell pressure from that DA will be highly significant. That is why there is a race by current miners to get the BTC price up high enough to attract more miners to not have the DA drop too much.
References:
Difficulty adjustment dates taken from https://btc.com/stats/diff
Bitcoin graph history for price movement taken from coinmarketcap.
Median confirmation time (block time) taken from https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time

Credits to people who assisted the analysis:
kairepaire for pointing out faster block times between 5th-11th.
babies_eater for https://fork.lol/pow/retarget
moes_tavern_wifi for https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/
Pantamis for https://diff.cryptothis.com/
submitted by theforwardbrain to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Technical details of the Earthcoin network 2019

Technical details of the Earthcoin network 2019
Blockchain parameters
crypt hashing algorithm
Proof of Work (POW) mining
60 seconds block target
Difficulty retarget after each block (+167%, -91%)
Total coins will be 13.5 billion coins (infinite by a theory, because the minimal block reward is 1 EAC, but in the practice 13.5*109 will not be exceeded within the next 2000 years)
50 confirmations per minted block
5 confirmations per transaction
Supports transaction messages
Initial block reward on average 10,000 EAC, varies seasonly ( currently 625 EAC) Block payout is halved every year, minimum payout of 1 EAC per block Superblocks every 14 and 31 day The default ports are 35677 (P2P-network) and 15678 (RPC-calls, optional)
Transaction speed
The mechanism behind Earthcoin which is based on peer-to-peer, allows transactions to happen very quickly. This means that once you pay or get payed with Earthcoin, the time taken to see the money transferred is equal or sometimes faster than the avarege debit card. Earthcoin promotes transaction times of approximatly 30 seconds where it is actually closer to 10-15 seconds which is nowadays regarded as being instant. The true strength behind this speed is the abillity to use it in any store in the near future with the same feel of speed as the currency you hold today.
Security
The Earthcoin network had been attacked by a 51% attack and controlled by a group of hackers for several months in the middle of 2017. Thanks to the unwavering efforts of the community, the attack was thrown back and EarthCoin was returned to all users. The source code was then fixed, secured against similar attacks in the future and a unique protection against time travel attack was implemented. The EarthCoin code is now much more secure than most of other cryptocurrencies. In the first half of 2019, a major upgrade of the Earthcoin network was done and security features according to the current blockchain protocol of Bitcoin and Litecoin networks were implemented.
From:http://deveac.com/technical.html
submitted by zongyongge to Earthcoin [link] [comments]

Verge (XVG) Mining Exploit Attack Megathread

To reduce the multitude of posts on this topic, this megathread will take their place and include existing information and any further updates.

Summary

On April 4th, suprnova mining pool operator ocminer posted this thread notifying the crypto community and verge team that the attack had happened and how it worked.
There's currently a >51% attack going on on XVG which exploits a bug in retargeting in the XVG code.
Usually to successfully mine XVG blocks, every "next" block must be of a different algo.. so for example scrypt,then x17, then lyra etc.
Due to several bugs in the XVG code, you can exploit this feature by mining blocks with a spoofed timestamp. When you submit a mined block (as a malicious miner or pool) you simply set a false timestamp to this block one hour ago and XVG will then "think" the last block mined on that algo was one hour ago.. Your next block, the subsequent block will then have the correct time.. And since it's already an hour ago (at least that is what the network thinks) it will allow this block to be added to the main chain as well.
This attack given the malicious miner almost 99% of the effective hashrate, giving them the ability to perform a 51% attack and rapidly collect block rewards from thousands of blocks. In response, some exchanges have disabled deposits and some pools have disabled Verge support as they cannot currently compete.
The Verge development team has said they will not rollback the chain, and has pushed an attempted fix that has been controversial about whether it will work and what unintended consequences it may have. (source)
Update: Verge's latest twitter post on the matter

Prior popular /cryptocurrency posts

Other resources

submitted by CryptoMaximalist to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Bull Runs Always Preceded by 3 Phases of Miner Capitulation

Bitcoin Bull Runs Always Preceded by 3 Phases of Miner Capitulation
Economists have long suspected a correlation between Bitcoin’s price action and its hash rate. Now, it appears there is a way to predict the market by looking at what happens when Bitcoin’s difficulty is negatively adjusted as hash rate drops.
According to a recent analysis performed by PlanB (@100trillionUSD), there appears to be a direct correlation between Bitcoin’s price and its difficulty adjustment cycle.
https://preview.redd.it/efmo4uch4ty31.png?width=626&format=png&auto=webp&s=c4d2f99112e019f251240841aaea9e82d202ffb4
Looking at the chart, it is clear that there is a three-phase relationship between Bitcoin’s price action and its mining difficulty. After each all-time high, we can see that mining difficulty gradually increases for a short period (shown as red dots), before slowing down (green and orange dots) and eventually decreasing during each difficulty retargeting period (red dots).
The concept here is that the arrows indicate miner capitulation. As we can see, shortly after Bitcoin’s value reaches an all-time high, difficulty tends to reduce while miners capitulate in the subsequent months. This capitulation is at its greatest at the base of every bearish run, as can be demonstrated by the abundance of blue dots (reduced difficulty)
After miners capitulate, Bitcoin tends to see a transient price increase, followed again by a negative difficult adjustment during which miners again capitulate (yellow arrows). This again leads to bullish price action, which eventually cools off, leading to a negative difficulty adjustment and subsequent miner capitulation, This proceeds to happen a third time, with this miner capitulation (green arrow) instead leading to Bitcoin reaching a new all-time high.

https://preview.redd.it/08zq148s4ty31.png?width=823&format=png&auto=webp&s=f6b10586317f98ce04572bce19347e5d1fbce2a7
Based on the chart, we can see that since late 2018, Bitcoin has already experienced two out of three miner capitulation cycles: the first in December 2019 (red arrow) and the second just recently (yellow arrow). Because of this, if the trend continues for the third time, Bitcoin could be on the cusp of another significant pump in the coming months, whereas the next phase after that could yield another all-time high.
Why exactly this pattern occurs remains a mystery, but may have something to do with the release of more powerful, or more efficiency mining equipment. Understandably, as Bitcoin’s price drops, so too does the profitability of Bitcoin mining.
However, with the advent of more cost-efficient mining hardware, miners are again given the opportunity to profit, leading to an increase in both the Bitcoin hash rate and mining difficulty until mining once again becomes unprofitable—beginning the cycle anew.
submitted by Moustache_Group to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ritocoin - a 100% community driven project based on Ravencoin


tl:dr: Ritocoin is a code fork of the Ravencoin codebase and continues to track future Ravencoin developments. The project was launched to provide a more community-oriented blockchain with the same functionality as Ravencoin, without a corporate overseer, and with a more flexible model for community participation and development. It’s intention is to be a hacker’s playground for innovative ideas.

Specifications

Proof-of-Work Algorithm: X21S
Block Time: 60 seconds
POW Block Reward: Smooth curve down
Community fund: 1% first year
Difficulty Retargeting: DGW-180
Maximum Supply:
6 months: 993,521,892 RITO
1 year: 1,227,448,858 RITO
5 years: 1,762,210,058 RITO
10 years: 1,820,404,381 RITO
50 years: 2,030,907,256 RITO
100 years: 2,293,707,246 RITO
Infinite: 10 RITO per block in perpetuity

Pre-mine: None
Masternodes: Researching for use case
Asset layer: Was enabled at height 50,000

Links
Website
/ritocoin
Explorer
Github
Whitepaper
twitter
[ANN]

X21S

This hashing algorithm was created specifically for Ritocoin, and was designed to resist FPGAs, ASICs, and NiceHash. It is X16S (16 algorithms shuffled and hashed),, followed by 5 additional hashing algorithms: haval256, tiger, lyra2, gost512, and sha256. The inclusion of lyra2 brings numerous advantages, making parallelization of the algorithm practically impossible, with each step relying on the previous step having already been computed. It is a “friendly” algorithm that makes GPUs produce much less heat and uses less electricity during mining.

Take your time to learn more about us in the below story of Ritocoin...

The spirit of Bitcoin continues to inspire, empower and enable people around the globe. Ten years later, just as it seemed Bitcoin was being defined by commercial agents and regulated governance, that same free and independent spirit imbued the Ravencoin community. In ten short months, however, 30% of the Ravencoin project’s net hash comes from NiceHash and the looming impact of the imminent FPGA mining cards and X16R bitstreams certainly promises to shake up the dream of this GPU miner’s darling.

Ravencoin’s fair launch genuinely inspired our developers and supporters. We admire the way Ravencoin came out swinging — fighting for fairness, an honest distribution of coins and a place where GPU miners could thrive. The asset layer attracted many more miners and investors to the pools. Many Ritocoin enthusiasts came from the Ravencoin community, and continue their association with that project.

The whole crypto ecosystem should appreciate the work begun by Ravencoin. Obviously they continue to inspire and motivate us to this day. It’s the reason we took action. We decided to start our own project which focuses upon at least two pillars of decentralized networks in the crypto space: community governance and a fair distribution of coins. It is a core belief throughout Ritocoin that in order to successfully develop and maintain this hacker’s playground — a place where a broad range of ideas could be tried and allowed to flourish — these two ideals must be allowed to drive and guide our community.

This deep focus on community choices creates a project flexible enough to support most ideas, and agile enough to define new frontiers.

A mining network’s distributed ledger is defined by its technology. Like many in the broader crypto-mining community, we value the GPU for its accessibility. These processors are available for purchase all around the world without any legal restrictions. GPUs are vastly more accessible for hobbyists and miners to acquire. They can be shipped nearly anywhere around the globe, a nice benefit to the popular secondary market which has sprung up much to the chagrin of PC gamers.

More constraints exist for the ASIC and FPGA miner. Laws in some parts of the world restrict people from using or buying ASIC and FPGA mining hardware. This alone is directly in confrontation with Ritocoin’s core values of decentralized stewardship and sovereignty.

The GPU, in essence, is like your voice. Anyone with the means of acquiring one GPU should be able to have their voice heard. ASIC and FPGA mining devalues the GPU miner’s voice and silos that coin’s network away from the small scale and personal mining operator. A truly community driven project means each stakeholder, regardless of size of contribution to the network’s net hash, has an opportunity to build, vote and direct.

If you are already familiar with our website, discord or whitepaper, you are probably aware that masternodes had been proposed as a feature of the network from the beginning. This opened the door to ongoing discussions in the Ritocoin community regarding

● A masternode’s true purpose

● What benefit they provide to the project

● How the benefit is realized

● The collateral

This discussion, governed entirely by stakeholders across the extended network yielded a defining moment for our vision of flexibility. We have not yet found the potential utility of masternodes, however, the conversation has not reached an extent to where we could abandon the idea. To quote one of our developers during this discussion on our Discord:

“Just want to give a reminder here that even though masternodes are on the roadmap, it is not set in stone. This coin belongs to the community and we will do what we as a community want to do. If we conclude that we want to take this coin a different direction than masternodes, then that is what we’ll do.” --traysi

We are all volunteers at Ritocoin. Our moderators and community leaders try to give immediate support to all users that require it. Contact us in Discord or Telegram, not only for support, but, proposing new ideas, revising old ones and just so you can find a place to get together and find people to hang out with. You are well within your rights to enjoy yourself at any given moment, and, should you feel so inclined to begin working with the team, we just so happen to be looking for ambitious individuals that see themselves as being part of a greater vision, are inspired by change, and inspired to be the change they want to see making things better in this world.

Join us in a space where your ideas to build something great can become a reality. We are eager to know what you think is best for the future of Rito. What steps would you take to become more resilient, stronger, fair and decentralized? Because at the end of the day, like it or not, love it or leave it.. this is your coin, too.

You can become a significant part of this project. We will help you further develop the role you wish to fill in the cryptocurrency space — influencer, developer, analyst, you name it. This is not a just-for-developer’s playground. We want the enthusiasts. We want the perplexed and the rabbit-hole divers. This is the coin for everyone who is trying to find their place on the path that Satoshi began unfolding in 2008 after the collapse of the housing market rippled out into the subsequent crash of global markets. That’s why we have Bitcoin, remember? Be your own bank. This is why Satoshi and Bitcoin.org kept their software open source. It’s up to us to keep the torch ablaze.

Community funds

For the first year, about 1% of mined coins are set aside into a developers fund that is used to provide bounties to the community developers who make substantial development contributions to the Ritocoin ecosystem. We have already paid out numerous bounties for important work that has already benefits Ritocoin in substantial ways. We also have another donation-driven community fund that has recently been put together for the purposes of doing fun contests and things like that.

Cooperation and collaborations

We have discovered a number of fatal flaws in the original Ravencoin codebase and worked with the Ravencoin developers to get those fixed in both Ritocoin and Ravencoin. This work has benefitted Ravencoin in numerous ways and we look forward to a long time of collaboration and cooperation between us and them. Many members of the Safecoin team are also in our discord group, and have collaborated with us in shaping the future decisions of Ritocoin. We have several thousand members in our group and they represent all walks of cryptocurrency life. We invite all coin developers, miners and enthusiasts to join our discord and be a part of this coin that truly belongs entirely to the community.

Block reward

A couple weeks ago we met for a scheduled meeting in our discord group and had a lengthy conversation about the block reward. Our block reward started at 5,000 RITO per block (every 60 seconds) just like Ravencoin. This extremely high number of coins coupled with the high profitability of mining led to unforeseen consequences with pools auto-exchanging the coin into bitcoin. This dumping by non-community miners had a very negative impact on the community sentiment and morale, as we watched the exchange price plunge. We looked at other coins and realized that this fate has befell many other coins with high block rewards. Following much discussion, we decided to change the reward structure. Starting around March 19th the block rewards will start to slowly go down in a curve until it reaches 1,000. Then the reduction will be even more slowed down with block rewards exponentially dropping at periodic intervals. We have posted charts on our website that shows what the long-term effects of our reward reducing algorithms will be. As a miner, the next 2 months will be a great time to mine and hold, while the block reward is still fairly high. We encourage all miners and cryptocurrency enthusiasts to take advantage of the current favourable block reward and build a nice holding for yourself. Then join the community and be a part of the fun we’re having with this project.
This post was prepared by a collaboration of multiple Ritocoin members and was posted to reddit by the core developer Trevali, who posts to reddit under the ritocoin username and will be very happy to answer any questions anybody may have about our project. Traysi (well known in the Ravencoin community) is also an active Ritocoin developer and may come to this thread if needed.
We welcome any questions from any of you regarding our project!
submitted by ritocoin to gpumining [link] [comments]

Let's talk about Operation Dragonslayer

There's a conspiracy theory going around about Bitcoin (BTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH/BCC) that I think my fellow redditors should know about.
TLDR: In 17.5 hours BCH will try to usurp BTC as the "true" Bitcoin and this will cause BTC prices to tank to unrecoverable levels and will have side effects on alts as well since BTC is the main pair.
Technical TLDR: The conspiracy plan is that when Bitcoin locks their difficulty algorithm, a group of miners will switch to BCH in mass and pump BCH to huge levels. This will cause a panic sell of BTC and cause people to try and transfer BTC from their wallets to exchanges, but because all the miners have left and the difficulty is locked, the network will be clogged with slow and expensive transactions for the next 2 weeks, spelling the end of Bitcoin.
Longer Story
I'm going to assume most people here are fairly new to crypto and weren't around for all the politics and drama between /bitcoin and /btc
There's a lot to understand about the interplay between difficulty algorithm changes, miner reward incentives, the politics of the pools that take a while to go into.
These two articles might help catch you up:
Two weeks ago we saw something similar when BCH exploded and BTC went all the way down to $5500. This was because BTC had a difficulty algorithm change and BCH was approximately 3-4x more profitable to mine. Only Slush kept mining BTC so we'll see if they stay true to BTC this time around too.
Right now we're seeing BTC, ETH, and most alts fall at the exact same time BCH rises. This might be bots reading the right indicators and buying/selling.
The estimated time of the difficulty algorithm changes is on the bottom of https://fork.lol/pow/retarget
Other important items to note:
Will Thanksgiving Weekend 2017 be like Thanksgiving Weekend 2013? We'll see...
Strategies
  • Start moving your BTC and alts off of wallets and into the right exchanges just in case the networks get clogged and you want to be ready to make a move
  • Go into FIAT to avoid this drama and enter in again after this passes
  • Go into BCH
  • Put some super low limit orders on BTC in case stop orders and panic selling cause another flash crash like ETH had on GDAX
FAQ
What is the "dragon" being slain?
Some think it's Bitcoin, the biggest crypto. Other think it's a private chat group that a bunch of Core folks are in that they self-dubbed the Dragon's Den in an self-mocking fashion
Isn't this just some stupid 4chan meme?
Rational brains would agree, and chances are it really is and Jihan and gang are shaking their head in disbelief that people would believe something like this.
But $4B of volume on BCH is undeniable, and not something that a bunch of "trolls" can just conjure up.
submitted by darkally to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Largest Historical Decline in Hashrate Difficulty

I haven't seen any talk about this, but when examining the data for hashrate difficulty it appears notable that for the entire history of bitcoin the difficulty of the hashrate has remained on a steady incline save for two low magnitude dips up until late Octobeearly November of this year when there begins an ~11% decline in the past six weeks with a further projected decline of ~10% at the next retarget.
Now, I can't quite put it all together and see how it's all connected. There was a similar difficulty at a similar fiat equivalency 08/17 but on the other hand the difficulty continued to scale up despite the large magnitude decline from the peak to the largely stable period of 6k.
I can't seem to find (or am not making a connection to) the volume of miners, although I'm not certain if there a correlation.
How is this all connected and what does it portend?
submitted by FortuitousIdiom to btc [link] [comments]

51% attack on monacoin

IMPORTANT NOTE 2018,05.21.

Monacoin dev sent Lae an email, saying that his current advice for exchanges is to increase confirmations to 100 for now, and that he doesn't have a concrete plan moving forward yet.

Original post:

Currently we are having an 51%+selfish mining+timestamp attack on monacoin reported by several people. Some exchanges (Bittrex, Livecoin) alreday disabled depositing Monacoin, i suggest other exchanges to disable it as well temporarly. monacoin dev suggests to set confirmation time to 100 and everything can resume.

What is happening?

-one of the mining community witholds the blocks
-due to buggy diff retarget calculation the next block can be mined very easily
-new blocks can be issued rapidly
-result 1 = faulty confirmed payments into exchanges (hidden block with a hidden transaction to different address from earlyer and not to exchange + issuing block with payment to exchange and rapidly issued forged blocks relation to this block -> exchange detects proper number of confirmations, then they free up the real block as well, resulting the original forged blocks to be orphanged -> the new chain has no payment to the exchange, but the payment is alreday in the exchange database -> swapping to other coins and withdraw)
-result 2 = and stealing the block reward from a lot of blocks
The bug is the quite similar as Verge had a month ago. Increasing block age for deposits will not fix it, but increasing the block confirmations actually secures you from the attack aniway. Exchangers and online services should increase it above 100. (There is difference as in Verge the timestamp itself was faked - here a different algorithmic error plays role, which the developers must first find).
The main issue (witholding the blocks) was discovered earlyer, but until now it was not a threat (now it became malicious due to this retarget bug - basically combining this 3 phenomon together). The attacker attempts to do the attack for half year with automated mechanisms, now he succeeded.
You may continue using monacoin for buying and selling stuff, but wait a few hours before shipping the product.
Western exchages (Livecoin) lost $90k usd due to attack.
(The bug probably exists with almost all of the bitcoin clones as well - but you must be able to withold blocks to exploit it. )
Your personal Monacoin holdings are not in danger.
The network and transactions - besides this - working as usual, you can continue using your wallet as you did before.
This does NOT have any impact on you as a regular user.
Disclaimer:
  1. i am nobody, and i am not a core developer
  2. i cant check the credibility of the informations i posted above
  3. we are trying to reconstruct whats happening. the monacoin developers dont speak english, and we dont speak japanese
  4. i am programmer, but i am not expert in crypto in any ways
  5. i am not affiliated with monacoin project
  6. meanwhile the title says 51% attack, its possible to achieve this attack around 40-45% hashrate as well (however lower the attackers percentage is, lower the chance of succesfully executing the attack)
an example of suspicious activity on monacoin chain: https://imgur.com/a/OeUwU3I
https://twitter.com/tcejorpniocanom/status/997147764294270982
https://twitter.com/tcejorpniocanom/status/997141459777110017
https://www.reddit.com/monacoin/comments/7z6tgt/more_than_51_hash_power_for_unknown_address/
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=392436.msg37346720#msg37346720
https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/hl?a=20180518-00000040-zdn_n-sci
https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/5076/what-stops-miners-nodes-lying-about-what-time-a-block-was-mined?rq=1
Statistic data from Ming:
Traversal of reorg chains data https://pastebin.com/nh57q3k8
Mined blocks that are not in the main chain according to API (hash block_height address value): https://pastebin.com/C92iqmY4
Diagram of chain reorg, now with the replaced chain.
https://gist.github.com/Ming-Tang/7d4d1441b78b551bf752a3ef0a953fbd
PDF version: https://www.dropbox.com/s/stormjg8bcpacg4/reorgs.pdf?dl=0
Suspected attacker: MBTt4Z*********************Wsx

Aftermath:

  1. bittrex employee contacted me, and told me that they consider delisting the coin if they cant contact twitter.com/tcejorpniocanom - i gave them contacts who might know how to contact the developer, and suggested them to do 300 block confirmations
  2. the coins alreday scammed out from the legitimate owners canot be returned - the chain canot be modified backwards
  3. another bitcoin clone called bitcoin gold got hit by a similar attack ( https://forum.bitcoingold.org/t/double-spend-attack-on-exchanges/1362 Details on similar attack for Bitcoin Gold. )
  4. monacoin dev suggest to set confirmation time to 100. no new actions will take place now. enjoy using the coin.
  5. bitbank re-enabled their wallet
  6. bittrex reopened wallet
submitted by GeriGeriGeri to monacoin [link] [comments]

Why Verge Needs DigiShield NOW! And Why DigiByte Is SAFE!

Hello everyone, I’m back! Someone asked a question recently on what exactly happened to XVG – Verge and if this could be a problem for DGB – DigiByte - Here: DigiByte vs Verge It was a great question and there have been people stating that this cannot be a problem for us because of DigiShield etc… with not much explanation after that.
I was curious and did a bit more investigating to figure out what happened and why exactly it is that we are safe. So take a read.

Some Information on Verge

Verge was founded in 2014 with code based on DogeCoin, it was initially named DogeCoinDark, it later was renamed Verge XVG in 2016. Verge has 5 mining algorithms as does DigiByte. Those being:
However, unlike DigiByte those algorithms do not run side by side. On Verge one block can only be mined by a single algorithm at any time. This means that each algorithm takes turns mining the chain.
Prior to the latest fork there was not a single line of code that forced any algo rotation. They all run in parallel but of course in the end only one block can be accepted at given height which is obvious. After the fork algo rotation is forced so only 6 blocks with the same algo out of any 10 blocks can be accepted. - srgn_

Mining Verge and The Exploit

What happened then was not a 51% attack per say, but the attacker did end up mining 99% of all new blocks so in fact he did have power of over 51% of the chain. The way that Verge is mined allowed for a timestamp exploit. Every block that is mined is dependent on the previous blocks for determining the algorithm to be used (this is part of the exploit). Also, their mining difficulty is adjusted every block (which last 30 seconds also part of the exploit). Algorithms are not picked but in fact as stated previously compete with one another. As for difficulty:
Difficulty is calculated by a version of DGW which is based on timestamps of last 12 blocks mined by the same algo. - srgn_
This kind of bug is very serious and at the foundation of Verge’s codebase. In fact, in order to fix it a fork is needed, either hard fork or soft fork!
What happened was that the hacker managed to change the time stamps on his blocks. He introduced a pair of false blocks. One which showed that the scrypt mining algorithm had been previously used, about 26 mins before, and then a second block which was mined with scrypt. The chain is set up so that it goes through the 5 different algorithms. So, the first false block shows the chain that the scrypt algorithm had been used in the recent past. This tricks it into thinking that the next algorithm to be used is scrypt. In this way, he was essentially able to mine 99% of all blocks.
Pairs of blocks are used to lower the difficulty but they need to be mined in certain order so they can pass the check of median timestamp of last 11 blocks which is performed in CBlock::AcceptBlock(). There is no tricking anything into thinking that the next algo should be x because there is no algo picking. They all just run and mine blocks constantly. There is only lowering the difficulty, passing the checks so the chain is valid and accepting this chain over chains mined by other algos. - segn_
Here is a snippet of code for what the time stamps on the blocks would look like:
SetBestChain: new best=00000000049c2d3329a3 height=2009406 trust=2009407 date=04/04/18 13:50:09 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=000000000a307b54dfcf height=2009407 trust=2009408 date=04/04/18 12:16:51 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=00000000196f03f5727e height=2009408 trust=2009409 date=04/04/18 13:50:10 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=0000000010b42973b6ec height=2009409 trust=2009410 date=04/04/18 12:16:52 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=000000000e0655294c73 height=2009410 trust=2009411 date=04/04/18 12:16:53 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) 
Here’s the first falsified block that was introduced into the XVG chain – Verge-Blockchain.info
As you can see there is the first fake block with a time stamp of 13:50:09 for example and the next is set to 12:15:51, the following two blocks are also a fraudulent pair and note that the next block is set to 12:16:52. So essentially, he was able to mine whole blocks - 1 second per block!

The “Fix”

This exploit was brought to public attention by ocminer on the bitcointalk forums. It seems the person was a mining pool administrator and noticed the problem after miners on the pool started to complain about a potential bug.
What happened next was that Verge developers pushed out a “fix” but in fact did not really fix the issue. What they did was simply diminish the time frame in which the blocks can be mined. The attack still was exploitable and the attacker even went on to try it again!
“The background is that the "fix" promoted by the devs simply won't fix the problem. It will just make the timeframe smaller in which the blocks can be mined / spoofed and the attack will still work, just be a bit slower.” - ocminer
Ocminer then cited DigiShield as a real fix to the issue! Stating that the fix should also stipulate that a single algo can only be used X amount of times and not be dependent on when the algo was last used. He even said that DigiByte and Myriad had the same problems and we fixed them! He cited this github repo for DigiByte:

DigiShield

It seems that the reason that this exploit was so lucrative was because the difficulty adjustment parameters were not enough to reduce the rewards the attacker recieved. Had the rewards per block adjusted at reasonable rate like we do in DGB then at least the rewards would have dropped significantly per block.
The attacker was able to make off with around 60 million Verge which equals about 3.6 million dollars per today’s prices.
The exploit used by the attacker depended on the fact that time stamps could be falsified firstly and secondly that the difficulty retargeting parameters were inadequate.
Let’s cover how DigiShield works more in detail. One of the DigiByte devs gave us this post about 4 years ago now, and the topic deserves revisiting and updates! I had a hard time finding good new resources and information on the details of DigiShield so I hope you’ll appreciate this review! This is everything I found for now that I could understand hopefully I get more information later and I’ll update this post.
Let’s go over some stuff on difficulty first then I’ll try giving you a way to visualise the way these systems work.
First you have to understand that mining difficulty changes over time; it has to! Look at Bitcoin’s difficulty for example – Bitcoin difficulty over the past five months. As I covered in another post (An Introduction to DigiByte Difficulty in Bitcoin is readjusted every 2016 blocks which each last about 10 mins each. This can play out over a span of 2 weeks, and that’s why you see Bitcoin’s difficulty graph as a step graph. In general, the hash power in the network increases over time as more people want to mine Bitcoin and thus the difficulty must also increase so that rewards are proportional.
The problem with non-dynamic difficulty adjustment is that it allows for pools of miners and or single entities to come into smaller coins and mine them continuously, they essentially get “free” or easily mined coins as the difficulty has not had time to adjust. This is not really a problem for Bitcoin or other large coins as they always have a lot of miners running on their chains but for smaller coins and a few years ago in crypto basically any coin other than Bitcoin was vulnerable. Once the miners had gotten their “free coins” they could then dump the chain and go mine something else – because the difficulty had adjusted. Often chains were left frozen or with very high fees and slow processing times as there was not enough hash power to mine the transactions.
This was a big problem in the beginning with DigiByte and almost even killed DogeCoin. This is where our brilliant developers came in and created DigiShield (first known as MultiShield).
These three articles are where most of my information came from for DigiShield I had to reread a the first one a few times to understand so please correct me if I make any mistakes! They are in order from most recent to oldest and also in order of relevance.
DigiShield is a system whereby the difficulty for mining DigiByte is adjusted dynamically. Every single block each at 15 seconds has difficulty adjusted for the available hashing power. This means that difficulty in DigiByte is as close as we can get to real time! There are other methods for adjusting difficulty, the first being the Bitcoin/Litecoin method (a moving average calculated every X number of blocks) then the Kimoto Gravity Well is another. The reason that DigiShield is so great is because the parameters are just right for the difficulty to be able to rise and fall in proportion to the amount of hash power available.
Note that Verge used a difficulty adjustment protocol more similar to that of DigiByte than Bitcoin. Difficulty was adjusted every block at 30 seconds. So why was Verge vulnerable to this attack? As I stated before Verge had a bug that allowed for firstly the manipulation of time stamps, and secondly did not adjust difficulty ideally.
You have to try to imagine that difficulty adjustment chases hashing power. This is because the hashing power on a chain can be seen as the “input” and the difficulty adjustment as the corresponding output. The adjustment or output created is thus dependent on the amount of hashing power input.
DigiShield was designed so that increases in mining difficulty are slightly harder to result than decreases in mining difficulty. This asymmetrical approach allows for mining to be more stable on DigiByte than other coins who use a symmetrical approach. It is a very delicate balancing act which requires the right approach or else the system breaks! Either the chain may freeze if hash power increases and then dumps or mining rewards are too high because the difficulty is not set high enough!
If you’ve ever taken any physics courses maybe one way you can understand DigiShield is if I were to define it as a dynamic asymmetrical oscillation dampener. What does this mean? Let’s cover it in simple terms, it’s difficult to understand and for me it was easier to visualise. Imagine something like this, click on it it’s a video: Caravan Weight Distribution – made easy. This is not a perfect analogy to what DigiShield does but I’ll explain my idea.
The input (hashing power) and the output (difficulty adjustment) both result in oscillations of the mining reward. These two variables are what controls mining rewards! So that caravan shaking violently back and forth imagine those are mining rewards, the weights are the parameters used for difficulty adjustment and the man’s hand pushing on the system is the hashing power. Mining rewards move back and forth (up and down) depending on the weight distribution (difficulty adjustment parameters) and the strength of the push (the amount of hashing power input to the system).
Here is a quote from the dev’s article.
“The secret to DigiShield is an asymmetrical approach to difficulty re-targeting. With DigiShield, the difficulty is allowed to decrease in larger movements than it is allowed to increase from block to block. This keeps a blockchain from getting "stuck" i.e., not finding the next block for several hours following a major drop in the net hash of coin. It is all a balancing act. You need to allow the difficulty to increase enough between blocks to catch up to a sudden spike in net hash, but not enough to accidentally send the difficulty sky high when two miners get lucky and find blocks back to back.”
AND to top it all off the solution to Verge’s time stamp manipulation bug is RIGHT HERE in DigiShield again! This was patched and in Digishield v3 problems #7
Here’s a direct quote:
“Most DigiShield v3 implementations do not get data from the most recent blocks, but begin the averaging at the MTP, which is typically 6 blocks in the past. This is ostensibly done to prevent timestamp manipulation of the difficulty.”
Moreover, DigiShield does not allow for one algorithm to mine more than 5 blocks in a row. If the next block comes in on the same algorithm then it would be blocked and would be handed off to the next algorithm.
DigiShield is a beautiful delicate yet robust system designed to prevent abuse and allow stability in mining! Many coins have adopted out technology!

Verge Needs DigiShield NOW!

The attacker has been identified as IDCToken on the bitcointalk forums. He posted recently that there are two more exploits still available in Verge which would allow for similar attacks! He said this:
“Can confirm it is still exploitable, will not abuse it futher myself but fix this problem immediately I'll give Verge some hours to solve this otherwise I'll make this public and another unpatchable problem.” - IDCToken
DigiShield could have stopped the time stamp manipulation exploit, and stopped the attacker from getting unjust rewards! Maybe a look at Verge’s difficulty chart might give a good idea of what 1 single person was able to do to a coin worth about 1 billion dollars.
Here’s DigiByte’s difficulty steady, even and fair:
Maybe our developers could help Verge somehow – but for a fee? Or it might be a good way to get our name out there, and show people why DigiByte and DigiShield are so important!

SOURCES

Edit - Made a few mistakes in understanding how Verge is mined I've updated the post and left the mistakes visible. Nothing else is changed and my point still stands Verge could stand to gain something from adopting DigiShield!
Hi,
I hope you’ve enjoyed my article! I tried to learn as much as I could on DigiShield because I thought it was an interesting question and to help put together our DGB paper! hopefully I made no mistakes and if I did please let me know.
-Dereck de Mézquita
I'm a student typing this stuff on my free time, help me pay for school? Thank you!
D64fAFQvJMhrBUNYpqUKQjqKrMLu76j24g
https://digiexplorer.info/address/D64fAFQvJMhrBUNYpqUKQjqKrMLu76j24g
submitted by xeno_biologist to Digibyte [link] [comments]

Do you already know about Hygh?

Do you already know about Hygh?

https://preview.redd.it/4pq6tonpkiq31.jpg?width=414&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=82949faf11695573b89ae3b3c7673746f901713b
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Advertising is an asset which can be used to expand and transform any business. In this dispensation, a lot of money is spent on advertising and the figure is expected to increase in the next couple of years. Small business owners and medium-sized businesses have been sidelined and bossed by large firms, who pump millions of dollars monthly to advertise their businesses.
Many SMEs have liquidated because their businesses have no record of growth.
Most times, advertisers spend huge sums of money launching campaigns on various advertising networks but after such campaign, the company records low engagement and zero conversion on its ad campaigns.
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About HYGH
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https://preview.redd.it/7w7jfy9skiq31.jpg?width=415&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bcfbb11693efe31d0897950443c0a9aa4d302144
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The internet has made the world a global village and more advertisers have capitalized on the internet and social media to boost their businesses rather using it as for jamboree.
Similarly, with the high number of smartphone users, it is estimated that mobile advertising will overtake desktop advertising before 2020.

https://preview.redd.it/pmq98l1ukiq31.jpg?width=415&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8385feaa226990348a9e928c95917f6b4ee20333
HYGH gives you an opportunity to have your business digitized and reach out to more customers regardless of the size and level of such business.
As a business owner, creating awareness about your services and products should never be underestimated. One of the problems of small businesses is that they have a shortage of manpower, and this is an impediment to the growth of the business.
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HYGH (STO) Investment Opportunity
Currently, the company is running crowdfunding on their platform, therefore, providing equal chances for everyone to investments and reap the rewards. It is expected that the growth of digital out of home advertising would increase in a few years time.
You can become part of this digital revolution by investing in the HYGH platform. In 3 years from now, advertising spending is expected to be more than $800 billion; with a large chunk of this figure comes from ad campaigns made on digital platforms.
When companies like Amazon, Facebook and Apple INC started, a lot of people were sceptical about buying shares and investing in their startups. In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg started Facebook with his roommate, Eduardo Saverin during his Havard university days. He brought his friends together and shared his idea with them.
However, some of his friends showed little or no enthusiasm in his startup. Eventually, his college roommate, Eduardo become the company's only investor, who agreed to invest $15,000 in the company and own 30% of the company.
The money was used to buy servers for Zuckerberg’s Facebook project.
During Facebook's early days, Zuckerberg turned down a $1.5 billion offer from Viacom and also declined a $1 million offer from Microsoft for Facebook’s software.
Right now, Facebook is a multi-billion dollar company and Zuckerberg is one of the youngest entrepreneurs in the list of the top richest people in the world.
The major reason why so many people are living in regret is because they failed to invest in companies like Facebook, Amazon, Google Bitcoin when they had the chance to do it at an affordable rate.

https://preview.redd.it/8t9zmrsvkiq31.jpg?width=415&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=79ccf2e4a08e2f5444d23f1002c288b8f970dbe7
You can invest in the HYGH platform with a token of $500 and receive a 9% revenue share. You may ask, 'Why should I Invest In HYGH?'. The reason why you should invest in the company's STO is that the tokens which you've bought will appreciate and you are sure of getting a good ROI.
Also, payments are disbursed to investors quarterly.
Conclusion
It is quite remarkable that HYGH is on the move to change the digital out of home advertising platform. However, you mustn’t wait till the company goes platinum before you invest in its shares.
Who knows whether the STO becomes unavailable for investors or whether the value increases as investors join? Take a bold step now to join the digital revolution.
submitted by Mmmarnick to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

PSA: Line-by-line breakdown of the logic used in the 2016-block difficulty adjustment. Posted here because there is some confusion about difficulty on Bitcoin Cash.

I am posting this here because I see people in other threads afraid that difficulty may rise because we had EDA (emergency difficulty adjustment) take us down to 13% of hashrate difficulty, when in reality it will not have taken us ~16 weeks to get to 2016 blocks (as 13% would indicate).
In an attempt to provide some insight as to exactly how the difficulty retarget works, I am posting the below line-by-line breakdown.
TL;DR: Difficulty will adjust off the current working difficulty, whatever it may be. If it takes longer than 2-weeks, we adjust down. If shorter, we adjust up. Since it took us longer than 2 weeks already, we are definitely adjusting down!
. .
Line-by-line breakdown of the "CalculateNextWorkRequired()" function in pow.cpp, which is called for every 2016th block in the chain to retarget difficulty:
Comments: Note how clearly it's written. Very clear, concise and simple code.
This function is called every 2016 blocks to determine the correct acceptable difficulty of the next block (basically it is what does the adjusting every 2016 blocks). This function is "orthogonal to" (separate from) the "emergency difficulty adjustment" that Bitcoin Cash introduces and it works off the current difficulty (which may have been previously readjusted down by the emergency difficulty adjustment code or not).
Basically bitcoin has a single 'difficulty' variable, conceptually, and EDA readjusts this variable and/or this function does every 2016 -- but it's the same variable that both sets of code tweak.
uint32_t CalculateNextWorkRequired(const CBlockIndex *pindexPrev, int64_t nFirstBlockTime, const Consensus::Params ¶ms) { 
The incoming parameters explained:
  • pindexPrev -- a pointer to the tip of the blockchain right before a new block arrives.
  • nFirstBlockTime -- the timestamp of the first block in this 2016-block series
  • params -- the consensus params being used -- basically bitcoin has alternate consensus rules if it's on testnet or on mainnet or if it's in the developer debug REGTEST chain. The params variable captures the consensus rules being used.
    if (params.fPowNoRetargeting) { return pindexPrev->nBits; } 
The above is simply checking if we're in a special test/debug mode where a global flag disabling difficulty retargeting is set (as might be done on the REGTEST or TESTNET, optionally). Not used in mainnet, so safe to ignore the above lines. If the flag is set, return early and do no difficulty retarget.
 // Limit adjustment step int64_t nActualTimespan = pindexPrev->GetBlockTime() - nFirstBlockTime; 
Takes the current time and the time of 2016 blocks ago and measures the space in between. No magic here -- this is basically how much time has elapsed in 2016 blocks. EDIT: Unit is seconds
 if (nActualTimespan < params.nPowTargetTimespan / 4) { nActualTimespan = params.nPowTargetTimespan / 4; } 
params.nPowTargetTimespan for mainnet is set to 2 weeks' worth of seconds, or 120960 seconds. Compute readjustment but if it's below 25%, limit it to 25%
 if (nActualTimespan > params.nPowTargetTimespan * 4) { nActualTimespan = params.nPowTargetTimespan * 4; } 
Limits readjustment to 400%.
 // Retarget const arith_uint256 bnPowLimit = UintToArith256(params.powLimit); 
bnPowLimit is the absolute maximum pow limit set. For mainnet I believe the limit is MAX_INT_256 (which is an obscenely large number). For testnet it may be much lower.
 arith_uint256 bnNew; 
This will be the new difficulty.
 bnNew.SetCompact(pindexPrev->nBits); 
Pre-set the new difficulty to current difficulty (note how current difficulty may have been readjusted previously by Bitcoin Cash's emergency difficulty readjust).
 bnNew *= nActualTimespan; 
Scale the difficulty up to the actual timespan. Note actual timespan is clamped in the range (25%,400%) of 120960 seconds aka (30240,483840) seconds.
 bnNew /= params.nPowTargetTimespan; 
Divide the computed product back by the idealized timespan (120960). This basically is what retargets difficulty right here, in simple math.
 if (bnNew > bnPowLimit) bnNew = bnPowLimit; 
Cap the difficulty at the limit for this configuration.
 return bnNew.GetCompact(); 
Return the result as a 32-bit 'compact' representation of the difficulty.. the details of what this number means I won't go into here as they aren't important.
} 
submitted by NilacTheGrim to btc [link] [comments]

Weekly Webinar: October 27th, 2020  14,000 next for Bitcoin?! WHERE IS THE NEXT BUY?! Bitcoin Analysis October 2020 ... BITCOIN MOVE IMMINENT!  WATCH BEFORE 31 OCTOBER! - YouTube Bitcoin Fees About to Sky Rocket Again? Bitcoin Price What Next After Fresh Surge Toward $14000 ...

Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money … Press J to jump to the feed. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. r/Bitcoin. log in sign up. User account menu. 79. The next halvening is on July, 2020. See you there! Close. 79. Posted by. u/ddmnyc. 3 years ago. Archived. The next halvening is on July, 2020. See you there! 27 comments. share. save ... Retargeting on every block would result in ridiculous oscillation in the difficulty level when there's a hot streak and several blocks are found in short succession or a cold streak where a block isn't found for a long period. As for why it's 2016, at an average rate of 1 block per 10 minutes, it readjusts fortnightly. Bitcoin’s network difficulty adjusted downwards today, making older mining machines profitable once again, while Tokensoft distributed $4 million in tokenized equity to investors and technology ... Background: Mining Difficulty Retargeting. Bitcoin miners create blocks by solving (via brute force) ... The result is that about 10% of the time (once every couple hours) you'll have to wait over 20 minutes for the next block while about 0.3% of the time (once every few days) you'll have to wait over an hour for a block. This isn't great for developers who need their transactions confirmed in ... Bitcoin mining is set to get easier, as the network undergoes an expected difficulty adjustment on Tuesday – the first since last week's reward halving.

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Weekly Webinar: October 27th, 2020 14,000 next for Bitcoin?!

Find the next bitcoin: https://amorain.com/?E=oILTqkjyfSzMovEK4wjKLQ%3d%3d&s1 There is a bitcoin mining difficulty retargeting about to occur which will like... Start your trading week right with our weekly webinar. Get expert technical analysis of the major #forex #cryptocurrencies #indices #commodities #gold #stock... OHMC Coin. Kindness Donation Platform. https://www.ohmcoin.org The mission of OHMC is to educate the public about the benefits of sustainable, socially impactful and environmentally friendly ... Sign Up For A Free Webinar And Get Free Weekly Email Updates Here: https://www.bitcoinbeats.net/ -----... Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next. Up next The Absolute TRUTH about my experience as Brother Polight’s Mentee (Part 1)(sous-titres en français ...

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