Bitcoin Taxation in Germany - Cryptocurrency attorneys advise

German Ministry Of Finance Provides Guidance On Bitcoin Taxation

German Ministry Of Finance Provides Guidance On Bitcoin Taxation submitted by bitnewsbot to bitnewsbot [link] [comments]

German Ministry Of Finance Provides Guidance On Bitcoin Taxation

German Ministry Of Finance Provides Guidance On Bitcoin Taxation submitted by ethnewsbot to ETHInsider [link] [comments]

NOT SURE IF A SCAM REMOTE JOB OFFER! (Global AMC Company)

A few days a got an e-mail from a global company Global AMC based in Texas https://global-amc.com/ that I didn't apply for. They said they "got my CV from the Indeed job portal", I had been using Indeed job portal but hadn't filled out the cv blanks on the Indeed webpage, I was always only sending CV to employers as PDFs. So it was just my name and e-mail there. Also, none of my previous work experience had anything to do with finances or handling money. I was a Visual Artist / Content Manager. So I was a bit surprised.
I clicked on the link they sent me and after signing up on their platform it gave a brief overview of what's the process like (good-looking website). They asked me to sign the job agreement already, which I did, and write my current address (Germany) and send photos of 2 documents, and then I could start my paid training already. All the work would be 9-6 pm remote work. A bit more than 2000€ per month.
I did check out their website for some background research too, and in the "about" page were gaps in the text where it should have been "location", "time period" etc, like a fill-in text template. Also, the same staff people + some more work in another company "ACE & Company" https://aceandcompany.com/ with a similar mission with headquarters in Geneva.

I googled: "Is Cryptocurrency legal in Germany?" = German cryptocurrency taxation: ether, IOTA and Co. Unlike the euro (considered fiat money), Bitcoins and other cryptographic currencies are not legal tender.
This all might be totally legit as it's a less than 50 employees company that's just starting out, but I've never worked on such a profession or managed any transactions so I would be super thankful for any insights on the topic!

This is the e-mail copy paste:
"Dear ***,
We received your CV from the INDEED site and you are suitable for the position as an Account Manager. Thank you for your interest in the position of Account Manager. Below is the link to the company site where you would have to register and also get access to all the information regarding the job position. I am available to guide you through the process and answer all questions. https://cp.global-amc.com/ Also during registration, please select Account Manager for the vacancy option and *** as Manager
NB: This job offer is only open to candidates with European passport.
Below is the work Road map 1. register with Global AMC 2 register a payment system for working with crypto exchange 3 pass KYC verification 4 Open a bank Account through which you can make international transactions with the crypto exchange 5 register in the crypto exchange 6 get verified by KYC 7 start training with us / finish training 8 get connected with a client via our system 9 receive funds from a client 10 deposit crypto exchange 11 make a deal on cryptocurrency 12 send crypto currency directly to the client and get your commission 13 Get feedback from customer
The link to the general company site is below. https://global-amc.com/ You can contact me on *** or via this email. Thank you
Regards,***"

And some information from their portal:
"During the training a candidate will go through the following:
- A full cycle of working with cryptocurrency
- Creating payment portfolios for customers
- Passing checks in the main crypto exchangers
- Opening accounts in mobile banks
- Work with local banks
- Composing a report and preparation of a tax report
- Creating an order, processing application and withdrawing funds to the client"
submitted by amusethyself to Scams [link] [comments]

How much would a Bitcoin node handling 1GB blocks cost today? I did some back-on-the-envelope calculations.

1GB blocks would be able to confirm more than 5000tx/s. That would be VISA-level scale (which handles, on average, 1736tx/s). We often hear that we shouldn't raise the blocksize because then nodes would become too expensive to run. But how expensive exactly?
We have the following costs to take into account:
For now, I'm going to assume a non-pruned full node (i.e. a node that stores all transactions of the blockchain) for personal use, i.e. for a computer built at home. I'll add in the calculations for a pruned node at the end, which would likely be the prefered option for people who merely want to verify the blockchain for themselves. If you don't care about the assumptions and calculations, you can just jump right to the end of this post. If you spotted any error, please inform me and I'll update my calculation.

Storage

There's, on average, one block every 10 minutes, that is 144 every day and 4320 blocks every thirty days. I was able to find a 3TB HDD for $47,50 on Amazon, that is $0.018/GB. Storing all blocks with all transactions of a month (4320GB) would be $78.96/mo. Prices for storage halved from 2014 to 2017, so we can assume that to half in 2022, thus we can reasonably assume it'd cost around $40/mo. in 2022.
But would such an inexpensive hard disk be able to keep up with writing all the data? I found a comparable cheap HDD which can write 127MB/s sequentially (which would be the writing mode of Bitcoin). That would be enough even for 76GB blocks!
Edit: For the UTXO set, we need very fast storage for both reading and writing. Peter__R, in his comment below, estimates this to be 1TB for 4 billion users (which would make ~46,000tx/s if everyone would make 1tx/day, so id'd require about 10GB blocks). jtoomim seems more pessimistic on that front, he says that much of that has to be in RAM. I'll add the $315 I've calculated below to account for that (which would be rather optimistic, keep in mind).

Bandwidth

Bandwidth is more complicated, because that can't just be shipped around like HDDs. I'll just take prices for my country, Germany, using the provider T-online, because I don't know how it works in the US. You can plug in your own numbers based on the calculations below.
1GB blocks/10 minute mean 1.7MB/s. However, this is an average, and we need some wiggle room for transaction spikes, for example at Christmas or Black Friday. VISA handles 150 million transactions per day, that is 1736tx/s, but can handle up to 24,000tx/s (source). So we should be able to handle 13.8x the average throughput, which would be 1.7MB/s x 13.8 = 23.46M/s, or 187.68Mbit/s. The plan on T-online for 250Mbit/s (translated) would be 54.95€/mo (plus setup minus a discount for the first 6 months which seems to cancel out so we'll ignore it), which would be $61.78/mo. This plan is an actual flatrate, so we don't have to worry about hitting any download limit.
Note, however, that we don't order bandwidth for only our Bitcoin node, but also for personal use. If we only needed 2MB/s for personal use, the plan would be 34.95€, thus our node would actually only cost the difference of 20€ per month, or $22.50/mo. Nielsen's Law of Internet Bandwidth claims that a high-end user's connection speed grows by 50% per year. If we assume this is true for pricing too, the bandwidth cost for ~200Mbit/s/mo. would go down to 12.5% (forgot how exponential growth works) 29.6% of its today's cost by 2022, which decreases our number to $2.81/mo. $6.66/mo.
Edit: jtoomim, markblundeberg and CaptainPatent point out that the node would have a much higher bandwidth for announcing transactions and uploading historical blocks. In theory, it would not be necessary to do any of those things and still be able to verify one's own transactions, by never broadcasting any transactions. That would be quite leechy behaviour, though. If we were to pick a higher data plan to get 1000MBit/s downstream and 500MBit/s upstream, it would cost 119.95€/mo., however this plan isn't widely available yet (both links in German). 500MBit/s of upstream would give us max. 21 connected nodes at transaction spikes, or max. 294 connected nodes at average load. That would cost $39.85 in 2022 (with correct exponential growth).

CPU/Memory

CPU/Memory will be bought once and can then run for tens of years, so we'll count these as setup costs. The specs needed, of course, depend on the optimization of the node software, but we'll assume the current bottlenecks will have been removed once running a node actually becomes demanding hardware-wise.
This paper establishes that a 2.4GHz Intel Westmere (Xeon E5620) CPU can verify 71000 signatures per second... which can be bought for $32.88 a pair on Ebay (note: this CPU is from Q1'10). We'd need to verify 76659tx/s at spikes (taking the 13.8x number), so that pair of CPUs (handle 142,000tx/s) seem to just fit right in (given one signature per tx). We'd also have to account for multiple signatures per transaction and all the other parts of verification of transactions, but it seems like the CPU costs are neglegible anyway if we don't buy the freshest hardware available. ~$100 at current prices seem reasonable. Given Moore's Law, we can assume that prices for CPUs half every two years (transistor count x1.4162), so in three years, the CPU(s) should cost around $35.22 ($100/1.4163).
For memory, we again have to take into account the transaction spikes. If we're very unlucky, and transactions spike and there won't be a block for ~1h, the mempool can become very large. If we take the factor of 13.8x from above, and 1h of unconfirmed transactions (20,000,000tx usually, 276,000,000tx on spikes), we'd need 82.8GB (for 300B per transaction).
I found 32GB of RAM (with ECC) for $106, so three of those give us 96GB of RAM for $318 and plenty remaining space for building hash trees, connection management and the operating system. Buying used hardware doesn't seem to decrease the cost significantly (we actually do need a lot of RAM, compared to CPU power).
Price of RAM seems to decrease by a factor of x100 every 10 years (x1.58510), so we can expect 96GB to cost around $79.89 ($318/1.5853) in 2022.
Of course, CPU and memory need to be compatible, which I haven't taken into account. Chug a mainboard (~$150) and a power supply (~$50) into the mix, and the total would be just over $600 for today's prices. Even if mainboard and power supply prices remain the same, we'd still only have to pay around $315 for the whole setup in 2022.

Electricity

I found the following power consumptions:
So we'd have 129W 147.6W + N*6W. Electricity cost average at 12ct/kWh in the US, in Germany this is higher at 30.22ct/kWh. In the US, it would cost $11.14 $12.75 + N*$0.52 (P*12ct/kWh / 1000 * 24h/day *30days / 100ct/$), in Germany 28.06€ 32.11€ + N*1.30€.
At the end of the first year, it would cost $20.12 $21.73/mo. in the US and 50.52€ 54.57€/mo. in Germany.
At the end of the second year, it would cost $29.11 $30.72/mo. for the US and 72.98€ 77.03€/mo. for Germany. It increases by $8.98/mo. per year in the US and by 22.46€/mo. per year in Germany.
Electricity prices in Germany have increased over time due to increased taxation; in the US the price increase has been below inflation rate the last two decades. As it's difficult to predict price changes here, I'm going to assume prices will remain the same.

Conclusion

In summary, we get:
If we add everything up, for today's prices, we get (E: updated all following numbers, but only changed slightly) $132/mo. (US), $187/mo. (DE) for the second year and $71.92/mo. $78/mo. (US), $115.79/mo. $124/mo. (DE) in 2022.
It definitely is quite a bit of money, but consider what that machine would actually do; it would basically do the equivalent of VISA's payment verification multiple times over, which is an amazing feat. Also, piano lessons cost around $50-$100 each, so if we consider a Bitcoin hobbyist, he would still pay much less for his hobby than a piano player, who'd pay about $400 per month. So it's entirely reasonable to assume that even if we had 1GB blocks, there would still be lots of people running full-nodes just so.
How about pruned nodes? Here, we only have to store the Unspent Transaction Output Set (UTXO set), which currently clocks in at 2.8GB. If blocks get 1000 times bigger, we can assume the UTXO set to become 2.8TB. I'll assume ordinary HDD's aren't goint to cut it for reading/writing the UTXO set at that scale, so we'll take some NVMe SSDs for that, currently priced at $105/TB. Three of them would increase our setup by $315 to $915, but decrease our monthly costs. E: However this UTXO set is also required for the non-pruned node, therefore the setup costs stay at $915. Even in the highest power state, the 3 SSDs will need only 18.6W in total, so we'll get a constant 147.6W for the whole system.
In total, this is:
In total, this is $35.25/mo. in the US and $58.57/mo. in Germany for today's prices, or (E:) $19.41/mo. (US) and (E:) $42.73/mo. (DE) in 2022's prices. Which looks very affordable even for a non-hobbyist.
E: spelling
E²: I've added the 3 NVEe SSDs for the UTXO set, as pointed out by others and fixed an error with exponentials, as I figured out.
submitted by eyeofpython to btc [link] [comments]

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  112. Social Psychology, 12th Edition: David Myers
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submitted by cooklanbrahh to ebookleaksdownload [link] [comments]

Complete Guide to All r/neoliberal Flair Personalities [J-L]

Please see the first post [A-I] for more info about this post. Unfortunately, post character limit is 40k, so I will have to break this into multiple posts linked here:

[A-I]

[J-L]

[M-P]

[Q-Z]


James Heckman
1944 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· Professor in Economics at the University of Chicago. Professor at the Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies. Director of the Center for the Economics of Human Development (CEHD). Co-Director of Human Capital and Economic Opportunity (HCEO) Global Working Group. Heckman is also a Professor of Law at ‘the Law School’, a senior research fellow at the American Bar Foundation, and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research.
· In 2000, Heckman shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Daniel McFadden, for his pioneering work in econometrics and microeconomics.
· As of February 2019 (according to RePEc), he is the next most influential economist in the world behind Daniel McFadden.
· Heckman has received numerous awards for his work, including the John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association in 1983, the 2005 and 2007 Dennis Aigner Award for Applied Econometrics from the Journal of Econometrics, the 2005 Jacob Mincer Award for Lifetime Achievement in Labor Economics, the 2005 Ulysses Medal from the University College Dublin, the 2007 Theodore W. Schultz Award from the American Agricultural Economics Association, the Gold Medal of the President of the Italian Republic awarded by the International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzú Centre in 2008, the Distinguished Contributions to Public Policy for Children Award from the Society for Research in Child Development in 2009, the 2014 Frisch Medal from the Econometric Society, the 2014 Spirit of Erikson Award from the Erikson Institute, and the 2016 Dan David Prize for Combating Poverty from Tel Aviv University.
“The best way to improve the American workforce in the 21st century is to invest in early childhood education, to ensure that even the most disadvantaged children have the opportunity to succeed alongside their more advantaged peers”

Janet Yellen
1945 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· Successor to Ben Bernanke, serving as the Chair of the Federal Reserve from 2014 to 2018, and as Vice Chair from 2010 to 2014, following her position as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Yellen was also Chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers under President Bill Clinton.
· Yellen is a Keynesian economist and advocates the use of monetary policy in stabilizing economic activity over the business cycle. She believes in the modern version of the Phillips curve, which originally was an observation about an inverse relationship between unemployment and inflation. In her 2010 nomination hearing for Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Yellen said, “The modern version of the Phillips curve model—relating movements in inflation to the degree of slack in the economy—has solid theoretical and empirical support.”
· Yellen is married to George Akerlof, another notable economist, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate, professor at Georgetown University and the University of California, Berkeley..
· In 2014, Yellen was named by Forbes as the second most powerful woman in the world. She was the highest ranking American on the list. In October 2015, Bloomberg Markets ranked her first in their annual list of the 50 most influential economists and policymakers. In October 2015, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute ranked Yellen #1 in the Public Investor 100 list. In October 2010, she received the Adam Smith Award from the National Association for Business Economics (NABE).
“In the long run, outsourcing is another form of trade that benefits the U.S. economy by giving us cheaper ways to do things.”
“I'm just opposed to a pure inflation-only mandate in which the only thing a central bank cares about is inflation and not unemployment.”

Jared Polis
1975 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· 43rd governor of Colorado since January 2019. Polis served on the Colorado State Board of Education from 2001 to 2007 and was the United States Representative for Colorado's 2nd congressional district from 2009 to 2019.
· Polis is the first openly gay person and second openly LGBT person (after Kate Brown of Oregon) to be elected governor in the United States.
· In 2000 Polis founded the Jared Polis Foundation, whose mission is to “create opportunities for success by supporting educators, increasing access to technology, and strengthening our community.” Polis has also founded two charter schools.
· Polis was named Outstanding Philanthropist for the 2006 National Philanthropy Day in Colorado. He has received many awards, including the Boulder Daily Camera's 2007 Pacesetter Award in Education; the Kauffman Foundation Community Award; the Denver consul general of Mexico “Ohtli”; the Martin Luther King Jr. Colorado Humanitarian Award; and the Anti-Defamation League's inaugural Boulder Community Builder Award.
“Having alternative currencies is great, right, because, historically, government's had a monopoly on currency. At the end of the day, why should only politicians—either directly or indirectly—control the currency? We can reduce transaction cost, provide an alternative, and—look, I don't know whether it'll be Bitcoin or not—but I think the concept of digital currencies is here to stay, and the fact that a politician would write to try to ban them in their infancy is just the wrong way to go about it. Let the market determine whether there's any value there or not.”

Jeff Bezos
1964 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· Best known as the founder, CEO, and president of Amazon, Bezos is an American internet and aerospace entrepreneur, media proprietor, and investor. The first centi-billionaire on the Forbes wealth index, Bezos was named the “richest man in modern history” after his net worth increased to $150 billion in July 2018. In September 2018, Forbes described him as “far richer than anyone else on the planet” as he added $1.8 billion to his net worth when Amazon became the second company in history to reach a market cap of $1 trillion.
· Bezos supported the electoral campaigns of U.S. senators Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell, two Democratic U.S. senators from Washington. He has also supported U.S. representative John Conyers, as well as Patrick Leahy and Spencer Abraham, U.S. senators serving on committees dealing with Internet-related issues.
· Bezos has supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, and in 2012 contributed $2.5 million to a group supporting a yes vote on Washington Referendum 74, which affirmed same-sex marriage.
· After the 2016 presidential election, Bezos was invited to join Donald Trump's Defense Innovation Advisory Board, an advisory council to improve the technology used by the Defense Department. Bezos declined the offer without further comment.
· In September 2018, Business Insider reported that Bezos was the only one of the top five billionaires in the world who had not signed the Giving Pledge, an initiative created by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett that encourage wealthy people to give away their wealth.
“Percentage margins don't matter. What matters always is dollar margins: the actual dollar amount. Companies are valued not on their percentage margins, but on how many dollars they actually make, and a multiple of that.”
“We have the resources to build room for a trillion humans in this solar system, and when we have a trillion humans, we'll have a thousand Einsteins and a thousand Mozarts. It will be a way more interesting place to live.”

Jens Weidmann
1968 – Present Born: Germany Resides: Germany
· German economist and president of the Deutsche Bundesbank. Chairman of the Board of the Bank for International Settlements. From 1997 to 1999, Weidmann worked at the International Monetary Fund. In 2006, he began serving as Head of Division IV (Economic and Financial Policy) in the Federal Chancellery. He was the chief negotiator of the Federal Republic of Germany for both the summits of the G8 and the G20. He was given the 2016 Medal for Extraordinary Merits for Bavaria in a United Europe.
· Weidmann was involved in a series of major decisions in response to the financial crisis in Germany and Europe: preventing the meltdown of the bank Hypo Real Estate, guaranteeing German deposits and implementing a rescue programme for the banking system, piecing together two fiscal-stimulus programmes, and setting up the Greek bail-out package and the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF).
· In a 2011 speech, Weidmann criticized the errors and “many years of wrong developments” of the European Monetary Union (EMU) peripheral states, particularly the wasted opportunity represented by their “disproportionate investment in private home-building, high government spending or private consumption”. In May, 2012, Weidmann's stance was characterized by US economist and columnist Paul Krugman as amounting to wanting to destroy the Euro. In 2016, Weidmann dismissed deflation in light of the European Central Bank's current stimulus program, pointing out the healthy condition of the German economy and that the euro area is not that bad off.
“I share the concerns regarding monetary policy that is too loose for too long. … As you know I have concerns about granting emergency liquidity on account of the fact that the banks are not doing everything to improve their liquidity situation.”

Jerome Powell
1953 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· Current Chair of the Federal Reserve, nominated by Trump. Powell has faced substantial and repeated criticism from Trump after his confirmation. The Senate Banking Committee approved Powell's nomination in a 22–1 vote, with Senator Elizabeth Warren casting the lone dissenting vote.
· Powell briefly served as Under Secretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance under George H. W. Bush in 1992. He has served as a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors since 2012. He is the first Chair of the Federal Reserve since 1987 not to hold a Ph.D. degree in Economics.
· Powell has described the Fed's role as nonpartisan and apolitical. Trump has criticized Powell for not massively lowering federal interest rates and instituting quantitative easing.
· The Bloomberg Intelligence Fed Spectrometer rated Powell as neutral (not dove nor hawk). Powell has been a skeptic of round 3 of quantitative easing, initiated in 2012, although he did vote in favor of implementation.
· Powell stated that higher capital and liquidity requirements and stress tests have made the financial system safer and must be preserved. However, he also stated that the Volcker Rule should be re-written to exclude smaller banks. Powell supports ample amounts of private capital to support housing finance activities.
“The Fed's organization reflects a long-standing desire in American history to ensure that power over our nation's monetary policy and financial system is not concentrated in a few hands, whether in Washington or in high finance or in any single group or constituency.”

John Cochrane
1957 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and economist, specializing in financial economics and macroeconomics.
· The central idea of Cochrane's research is that macroeconomics and finance should be linked, and a comprehensive theory needs to explain both 1.) how, given the observed prices and financial returns, households and firms decide on consumption, investment, and financing; and 2.) how, in equilibrium, prices and financial returns are determined by households and firms decisions.
· Cochrane is the author of ‘Asset Pricing,’ a widely used textbook in graduate courses on asset pricing. According to his own words, the organizing principle of the book is that everything can be traced back to specializations of a single equation: the basic pricing equation. Cochrane received the TIAA-CREF Institute Paul A. Samuelson Award for this book.
“Regulators and politicians aren’t nitwits. The libertarian argument that regulation is so dumb — which it surely is — misses the point that it is enacted by really smart people. The fact that the regulatory state is an ideal tool for the entrenchment of political power was surely not missed by its architects.”

John Keynes (John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes)
1883 – 1946 Born: England Died: England
· British economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. Originally trained in mathematics, he built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century. Widely considered the founder of modern macroeconomics, his ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots. Keynes was a lifelong member of the Liberal Party, which until the 1920s had been one of the two main political parties in the United Kingdom.
· During the 1930s Great Depression, Keynes challenged the ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands. He argued that aggregate demand (total spending in the economy) determined the overall level of economic activity, and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. Keynes advocated the use of fiscal and monetary policies to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions.
· Keynes's influence started to wane in the 1970s, his ideas challenged by those who disputed the ability of government to favorably regulate the business cycle with fiscal policy. However, the advent of the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 sparked a resurgence in Keynesian thought. Keynesian economics provided the theoretical underpinning for economic policies undertaken in response to the crisis by President Barack Obama of the United States, Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, and other heads of governments.
· Keynes was vice-chairman of the Marie Stopes Society which provided birth control education and campaigned against job discrimination against women and unequal pay. He was an outspoken critic of laws against homosexuality. Keynes thought that the pursuit of money for its own sake was a pathological condition, and that the proper aim of work is to provide leisure. He wanted shorter working hours and longer holidays for all. Keynes was ultimately a successful investor, building up a private fortune.
“How can I accept the Communist doctrine, which sets up as its bible, above and beyond criticism, an obsolete textbook which I know not only to be scientifically erroneous but without interest or application to the modern world? How can I adopt a creed which, preferring the mud to the fish, exalts the boorish proletariat above the bourgeoisie and the intelligentsia, who with all their faults, are the quality of life and surely carry the seeds of all human achievement? Even if we need a religion, how can we find it in the turbid rubbish of the red bookshop? It is hard for an educated, decent, intelligent son of Western Europe to find his ideals here, unless he has first suffered some strange and horrid process of conversion which has changed all his values.”

John Locke
1632 – 1704 Born: England Died: England
· Known as the “Father of Liberalism,” Locke was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.
· Locke's political theory was founded on social contract theory. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority (of the ruler, or to the decision of a majority) in exchange for protection of their remaining rights or maintenance of the social order.
· Locke advocated for governmental separation of powers and believed that revolution is not only a right but an obligation in some circumstances. Locke was vehemently opposed to slavery, calling it “vile and miserable … directly opposite to the generous Temper and Courage of our Nation.”
· Locke uses the word “property” in both broad and narrow senses. In a broad sense, it covers a wide range of human interests and aspirations; more narrowly, it refers to material goods. He argues that property is a natural right and it is derived from labour aand that the individual ownership of goods and property is justified by the labour exerted to produce those goods
· According to Locke, unused property is wasteful and an offence against nature, but, with the introduction of “durable” goods, men could exchange their excessive perishable goods for goods that would last longer and thus not offend the natural law. In his view, the introduction of money marks the culmination of this process, making possible the unlimited accumulation of property without causing waste through spoilage.
“The power of the legislative, being derived from the people by a positive voluntary grant and institution, can be no other than what that positive grant conveyed, which being only to make laws, and not to make legislators, the legislative can have no power to transfer their authority of making laws, and place it in other hands.”
“No man in civil society can be exempted from the laws of it: for if any man may do what he thinks fit, and there be no appeal on earth, for redress or security against any harm he shall do; I ask, whether he be not perfectly still in the state of nature, and so can be no part or member of that civil society; unless any one will say, the state of nature and civil society are one and the same thing, which I have never yet found any one so great a patron of anarchy as to affirm.”

John Mill (John Stuart Mill a.k.a. J. S. Mill)
1806 – 1873 Born: England Died: France
· John Stuart Mill was arguably the most influential English speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was a naturalist, a utilitarian, and a liberal, whose work explores the consequences of a thoroughgoing empiricist outlook. In doing so, he sought to combine the best of eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinking with newly emerging currents of nineteenth-century Romantic and historical philosophy. His most important works include System of Logic (1843), On Liberty (1859), Utilitarianism (1861) and An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy (1865).
· Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control. A member of the Liberal Party and author of the early feminist work The Subjection of Women (in which he also condemned slavery), he was also the second Member of Parliament to call for women's suffrage after Henry Hunt in 1832.
· Mill, an employee for the British East India Company from 1823 to 1858, argued in support of what he called a “benevolent despotism” with regard to the colonies. Mill argued that “To suppose that the same international customs, and the same rules of international morality, can obtain between one civilized nation and another, and between civilized nations and barbarians, is a grave error. ... To characterize any conduct whatever towards a barbarous people as a violation of the law of nations, only shows that he who so speaks has never considered the subject.”
· John Stuart Mill believed in the philosophy of Utilitarianism, which he described as the principle that holds “that actions are right in the proportion as they tend to promote happiness [intended pleasure, and the absence of pain], wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness [pain, and the privation of pleasure].” Mill asserts that even when we value virtues for selfish reasons we are in fact cherishing them as a part of our happiness.
· Mill's early economic philosophy was one of free markets. However, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. Mill originally believed that “equality of taxation” meant “equality of sacrifice” and that progressive taxation penalized those who worked harder and saved more. Given an equal tax rate regardless of income, Mill agreed that inheritance should be taxed.
· His main objection of socialism was on that of what he saw its destruction of competition. According to Mill, a socialist society would only be attainable through the provision of basic education for all, promoting economic democracy instead of capitalism, in the manner of substituting capitalist businesses with worker cooperatives.
· Mill's major work on political democracy defends two fundamental principles at slight odds with each other: extensive participation by citizens and enlightened competence of rulers. He believed that the incompetence of the masses could eventually be overcome if they were given a chance to take part in politics, especially at the local level.
· Mill is one of the few political philosophers ever to serve in government as an elected official. In his three years in Parliament, he was more willing to compromise than the “radical” principles expressed in his writing would lead one to expect.
“He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion... Nor is it enough that he should hear the opinions of adversaries from his own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations. He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them...he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.”
“The only freedom which deserves the name is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or impede their efforts to obtain it. Each is the proper guardian of his own health, whether bodily, or mental or spiritual. Mankind are greater gainers by suffering each other to live as seems good to themselves, than by compelling each to live as seems good to the rest.”

John Rawls
1921 – 2002 Born: United States Died: United States
· Liberal American moral and political philosopher who received both the Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy and the National Humanities Medal in 1999, the latter presented by President Bill Clinton, who acclaimed Rawls for having “helped a whole generation of learned Americans revive their faith in democracy itself.” He is frequently cited by the courts of law in the United States and Canada.
· Rawls's most discussed work is his theory of a just liberal society, called justice as fairness. Rawls first wrote about this theory in his book A Theory of Justice. Rawls spoke much about the desire for a well-ordered society; a society of free and equal persons cooperating on fair terms of social cooperation.
· Rawls’s most important principle (the Liberty Principal) states that every individual has an equal right to basic liberties. Rawls believes that “personal property” constitutes a basic liberty, but an absolute right to unlimited private property is not.
· Rawls's argument for his principles of social justice uses a thought experiment called the “original position”, in which people select what kind of society they would choose to live under if they did not know which social position they would personally occupy.
“Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust. Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many. Therefore in a just society the liberties of equal citizenship are taken as settled; the rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or to the calculus of social interests.”

Joseph Nye
1937 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· American political scientist and co-founder of the international relations theory of neoliberalism (a theory concerned first and foremost with absolute gains rather than relative gains to other states), developed in the 1977 book Power and Interdependence. He is noted for his notion of “smart power” (“the ability to combine hard and soft power into a successful strategy”), which became a popular phrase with the Clinton and Obama Administrations.
· Secretary of State John Kerry appointed Nye to the Foreign Affairs Policy Board in 2014. In 2014, Nye was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star in recognition of his “contribution to the development of studies on Japan-U.S. security and to the promotion of the mutual understanding between Japan and the United States.”
· From 1977 to 1979, Nye was Deputy to the Undersecretary of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology and chaired the National Security Council Group on Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In recognition of his service, he was awarded the State Department's Distinguished Honor Award in 1979. In 1993 and 1994, he was Chairman of the National Intelligence Council, which coordinates intelligence estimates for the President, and was awarded the Intelligence Community's Distinguished Service Medal. In the Clinton Administration from 1994 to 1995, Nye served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, and was awarded the Department's Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster. Nye was considered by many to be the preferred choice for National Security Advisor in the 2004 presidential campaign of John Kerry.
· Nye has been a member of the Harvard faculty since 1964. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and a foreign fellow of The British Academy. Nye is also a member of the American Academy of Diplomacy. The 2011 TRIP survey of over 1700 international relations scholars ranks Joe Nye as the sixth most influential scholar in the field of international relations in the past twenty years. He was also ranked as most influential in American foreign policy. In 2011, Foreign Policy magazine named him to its list of top global thinkers. In September 2014, Foreign Policy reported that the international relations scholars and policymakers both ranked Nye as one of the most influential scholars.
“When you can get others to admire your ideals and to want what you want, you do not have to spend as much on sticks and carrots to move them in your direction. Seduction is always more effective than coercion, and many values like democracy, human rights, and individual opportunities are deeply seductive.”

Karl Popper
1902 – 1994 Born: Austria-Hungary Died: England
· Karl Popper is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century. He was a self-professed critical-rationalist, a dedicated opponent of all forms of scepticism, conventionalism, and relativism in science and in human affairs generally and a committed advocate and staunch defender of the ‘Open Society’.
· In ‘The Open Society and Its Enemies’ and ‘The Poverty of Historicism’, Popper developed a critique of historicism and a defense of the “Open Society”. Popper considered historicism to be the theory that history develops inexorably and necessarily according to knowable general laws towards a determinate end. He argued that this view is the principal theoretical presupposition underpinning most forms of authoritarianism and totalitarianism. He argued that historicism is founded upon mistaken assumptions regarding the nature of scientific law and prediction. Since the growth of human knowledge is a causal factor in the evolution of human history, and since “no society can predict, scientifically, its own future states of knowledge”, it follows, he argued, that there can be no predictive science of human history. For Popper, metaphysical and historical indeterminism go hand in hand.
· Popper is known for his vigorous defense of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he believed made a flourishing open society possible. His political philosophy embraced ideas from major democratic political ideologies, including socialism/social democracy, libertarianism/classical liberalism and conservatism, and attempted to reconcile them.
“Unlimited tolerance must lead to the disappearance of tolerance. If we extend unlimited tolerance even to those who are intolerant, if we are not prepared to defend a tolerant society against the onslaught of the intolerant, then the tolerant will be destroyed, and tolerance with them. In this formulation, I do not imply, for instance, that we should always suppress the utterance of intolerant philosophies; as long as we can counter them by rational argument and keep them in check by public opinion, suppression would certainly be most unwise. But we should claim the right to suppress them if necessary even by force; for it may easily turn out that they are not prepared to meet us on the level of rational argument, but begin by denouncing all argument; they may forbid their followers to listen to rational argument, because it is deceptive, and teach them to answer arguments by the use of their fists or pistols. We should therefore claim, in the name of tolerance, the right not to tolerate the intolerant. We should claim that any movement preaching intolerance places itself outside the law, and we should consider incitement to intolerance and persecution as criminal, in the same way as we should consider incitement to murder, or to kidnapping, or to the revival of the slave trade, as criminal.”

Lawrence Summers
1954 – Present Born: United States Resides: United States
· American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank, senior U.S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration, Treasury Secretary 1999–2001, and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama (2009–2010). Summers served as the 27th President of Harvard University from 2001 to 2006. Current professor and director of the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.
· As a researcher, Summers has made important contributions in many areas of economics, primarily public finance, labor economics, financial economics, and macroeconomics. Summers has also worked in international economics, economic demography, economic history and development economics.[ He received the John Bates Clark Medal in 1993 from the American Economic Association. In 1987, he was the first social scientist to win the Alan T. Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation. Summers is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
· In 1983, at age 28, Summers became one of the youngest tenured professors in Harvard's history. In 2006, Summers resigned as Harvard's president in the wake of a no-confidence vote by Harvard faculty. Summers viewed his beliefs on why science and engineering had an under-representation of women to be a large part in the vote, saying, “There is a great deal of absurd political correctness. Now, I'm somebody who believes very strongly in diversity, who resists racism in all of its many incarnations, who thinks that there is a great deal that's unjust in American society that needs to be combated, but it seems to be that there is a kind of creeping totalitarianism in terms of what kind of ideas are acceptable and are debatable on college campuses.”
· As the World Bank's Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist, Summers played a role in designing strategies to aid developing countries, worked on the bank's loan committee, guided the bank's research and statistics operations, and guided external training programs. The World Bank's official site reports that Summer's research included an “influential” report that demonstrated a very high return from investments in educating girls in developing nations. According to The Economist, Summers was “often at the centre of heated debates” about economic policy, to an extent exceptional for the history of the World Bank in recent decades.
· In 1999 Summers endorsed the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act which removed the separation between investment and commercial banks. In February 2009, Summers quoted John Maynard Keynes, saying “When circumstances change, I change my opinion”, reflecting both on the failures of Wall Street deregulation and his new leadership role in the government bailout.
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"Inflation, then, confers no general social benefit; instead, it redistributes the wealth in favor of the firstcomers and at the expense of the laggards in the race" - Rothbard

The Economic Effects of Inflation - What has Government done to our Money? by Rothbard
EDIT: Follow up on deflation. DEFLATION - The Ethics of Money Production by Jorg Guido Hulsmann
To gauge the economic effects of inflation, let us see what happens when a group of counterfeiters set about their work. Suppose the economy has a supply of 10,000 gold ounces, and counterfeiters, so cunning that they cannot be detected, pump in 2,000 “ounces” more. What will be the consequences? First, there will be a clear gain to the counterfeiters. They take the newly created money and use it to buy goods and services. The new money works its way, step by step, throughout the economic system. As the new money spreads, it bids prices up—as we have seen, new money can only dilute the effectiveness of each dollar. But this dilution takes time and is therefore uneven; in the meantime, some people gain and other people lose. In short, the counterfeiters and their local retailers have found their incomes increased before any rise in the prices of the things they buy. But, on the other hand, people in remote areas of the economy, who have not yet received the new money, find their buying prices rising before their incomes. Retailers at the other end of the country, for example, will suffer losses. The first receivers of the new money gain most, and at the expense of the latest receivers.
Inflation, then, confers no general social benefit; instead, it redistributes the wealth in favor of the firstcomers and at the expense of the laggards in the race. And inflation is, in effect, a race—to see who can get the new money earliest. The latecomers—the ones stuck with the loss—are often called the “fixed income groups.” Ministers, teachers, people on salaries, lag notoriously behind other groups in acquiring the new money. Particular sufferers will be those depending on fixed money contracts—contracts made in the days before the inflationary rise in prices. Life insurance beneficiaries and annuitants, retired persons living off pensions, landlords with long term leases, bondholders and other creditors, those holding cash, all will bear the brunt of the inflation. They will be the ones who are “taxed.”
Inflation has other disastrous effects. It distorts that keystone of our economy: business calculation. Since prices do not all change uniformly and at the same speed, it becomes very difficult for business to separate the lasting from the transitional, and gauge truly the demands of consumers or the cost of their operations. For example, accounting practice enters the “cost” of an asset at the amount the business has paid for it. But if inflation intervenes, the cost of replacing the asset on the books. As a result, business accounting will seriously overstate their profits during inflation—and may even consume capital while presumably increasing their investments. Similarly, stockholders and real estate holders will acquire capital gains during an inflation that are not really “gains” at all. But they may spend part of these gains without realizing that they are thereby consuming their original capital. By creating illusory profits and distorting economic calculation, inflation will suspend the free market’s penalizing of inefficient, and rewarding of efficient, firms. Almost all firms will seemingly prosper. The general atmosphere of a “sellers’ market” will lead to a decline in the quality of goods and of service to consumers, since consumers often resist price increases less when they occur in the form of downgrading of quality. The quality of work will decline in an inflation for a more subtle reason: people become enamored of “get-rich-quick” schemes, seemingly within their grasp in an era of ever-rising prices, and often scorn sober effort. Inflation also penalizes thrift and encourages debt, for any sum of money loaned will be repaid in dollars of lower purchasing power than when originally received. The incentive, then, is to borrow and repay later rather than save and lend. Inflation, therefore, lowers the general standard of living in the very course of creating a tinsel atmosphere of “prosperity.”
Fortunately, inflation cannot go on forever. For eventually people wake up to this form of taxation; they wake up to the continual shrinkage in the purchasing power of their dollar. At first, when prices rise, people say: “Well, this is abnormal, the product of some emergency. I will postpone my purchases and wait until prices go back down.” This is the common attitude during the first phase of an inflation. This notion moderates the price rise itself, and conceals the inflation further, since the demand for money is thereby increased. But, as inflation proceeds, people begin to realize that prices are going up perpetually as a result of perpetual inflation. Now people will say: “I will buy now, though prices are ‘high,’ because if I wait, prices will go up still further.” As a result, the demand for money now falls and prices go up more, proportionately, than the increase in the money supply. At this point, the government is often called upon to “relieve the money shortage” caused by the accelerated price rise, and it inflates even faster. Soon, the country reaches the stage of the “crack-up boom,” when people say: “I must buy anything now— anything to get rid of money which depreciates on my hands.” The supply of money skyrockets, the demand plummets, and prices rise astronomically. Production falls sharply, as people spend more and more of their time finding ways to get rid of their money. The monetary system has, in effect, broken down completely, and the economy reverts to other moneys, if they are attainable—other metal, foreign currencies if this is a one-country inflation, or even a return to barter conditions. The monetary system has broken down under the impact of inflation.
This condition of hyper-inflation is familiar historically in the assignats of the French Revolution, the Continentals of the American Revolution, and especially the German crisis of 1923, and the Chinese and other currencies after World War II.
A final indictment of inflation is that whenever the newly issued money is first used as loans to business, inflation causes the dread “business cycle.” This silent but deadly process, undetected for generations, works as follows: new money is issued by the banking system, under the aegis of government, and loaned to business. To businessmen, the new funds seem to be genuine investments, but these funds do not, like free-market investments, arise from voluntary savings. The new money is invested by businessmen in various projects, and paid out to workers and other factors as higher wages and prices. As the new money filters down to the whole economy, the people tend to re establish their old voluntary consumption/saving proportions.
In short, if people wish to save and invest about 20 percent of their incomes and consume the rest, new bank money loaned to business at first makes the saving proportion look higher. When the new money seeps down to the public, it re-establishes its old 20–80 proportion, and many investments are now revealed to be wasteful. Liquidation of the wasteful investments of the inflationary boom constitutes the depression phase of the business cycle.
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Mega eTextbooks release thread (part-3)! Find your textbooks here between $5-$25 :)

Please find the list below:
  1. Barron's CCRN Exam: Juarez, APN, CCNS, CCRN-K, Patricia
  2. Microeconomics, Student Value, 7th Edition: Jeffrey M. Perloff
  3. Cracking the AP Psychology Exam, 2017 Edition: Proven Techniques to Help You Score a 5 (College Test Preparation): Princeton Review
  4. Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology, 3rd Edition: Robert Weis
  5. Managerial Economics, 4th Edition: Luke M. Froeb & Brian T. McCann & Michael R. Ward & Mike Shor
  6. Writing that Works: Communicating Effectively on the Job: Walter E. Oliu & Charles T. Brusaw & Gerald J. Alred
  7. Horngren's Financial & Managerial Accounting, The Financial Chapters, Global 5th Edition: Tracie L. Miller-Nobles & Brenda L. Mattison & Ella Mae Matsumura
  8. Biology: The Dynamic Science: Peter J. Russell, Paul E. Hertz, Beverly McMillan
  9. CCENT ICND1 100-105 Exam Cram: Anthony Sequeira
  10. 31 Days Before Your CCNA Routing & Switching Exam: A Day-By-Day Review Guide for the ICND1/CCENT (100-105), ICND2 (200-105), and CCNA (200-125) Certification Exams: Allan Johnson
  11. Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century: Jeffry A. Frieden
  12. The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Environmental Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century (World Social Change), 3rd Edition: Robert B. Marks
  13. Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, 2nd Edition: Mary Crawford
  14. Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach, Global 8th Edition, : Joseph J. Martocchio
  15. Terrorism in the 21st Century, 7th Edition: Cynthia C. Combs
  16. Campbell Biology, Canadian 2nd Edition: Steven A. Wasserman
  17. Barron's ACT, 2nd edition (Barron's Act (Book Only)): Brian W. Stewart
  18. The Official ACT Prep Guide: ACT
  19. Ultimate Guide to the Math ACT: Richard Corn
  20. Corporate Communication (Irwin Business Communications), 7th Edition: Paul A Argenti
  21. Biological Psychology, 12th Edition: James W. Kalat
  22. Financial Accounting: IFRS, 3rd Edition: Jerry J. Weygandt & Paul D. Kimmel & Donald E. Kieso
  23. Society and Technological Change, 7th Edition: Rudi Volti
  24. Java Foundations: Pearson New International 3rd Edition: John Lewis & Peter DePasquale & Joe Chase
  25. University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman & A. Lewis Ford & Francis Weston Sears
  26. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, 2nd Edition: Debra J. DeWitte & Ralph M. Larmann & M. Kathryn Shields
  27. Essentials of Abnormal Psychology, 7th Edition: V. Mark Durand & David H. Barlow
  28. Finite Mathematics, 6th Edition: Stefan Waner & Steven Costenoble
  29. New Perspectives Microsoft Office 365 & Access 2016: Comprehensive: Mark Shellman & Sasha Vodnik
  30. Environment: The Science behind the Stories: Jay H. Withgott & Matthew Laposata
  31. Digital Planet: Tomorrow's Technology and You, Introductory (Computers Are Your Future), 10th Edition: Ben Beekman & George Beekman
  32. Architecture and Interior Design: An Integrated History to the Present: Buie Harwood & Bridget May & Curt Sherman
  33. Curren's Math for Meds: Dosages and Solutions, 11th Edition: Anna M. Curren & Margaret Witt
  34. The Legal Environment of Business: Text and Cases, 10th Edition: Frank B. Cross & Roger LeRoy Miller
  35. Prentice Hall's Federal Taxation 2015 Comprehensive: Thomas R. Pope & Timothy J. Rupert & Kenneth E. Anderson
  36. Drug Use and Abuse: A Comprehensive Introduction, 9th Edition: Howard Abadinsky
  37. Davis's Canadian Drug Guide for Nurses, 15th Edition: April Hazard Vallerand & Cynthia A Sanoski & Judith Hopfer Deglin
  38. Psychology, 12th Edition: Carole Wade & Carol Tavris
  39. How to Nurse: Gweneth Hartrick Doane & Colleen Varcoe
  40. The Advertising Concept Book: Think Now, Design Later, 3rd Edition: Pete Barry
  41. Software, Infrastructure, Labor: A Media Theory of Logistical Nightmares: Ned Rossiter
  42. Organic Chemistry, 8th Edition: Paula Yurkanis Bruice
  43. Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change, The, Volume I, 3rd Edition: Henry M. Sayre
  44. Financial Accounting, 9th Edition: Robert Libby
  45. Preface to Marketing Management, 14th Edition: J. Paul Peter
  46. Fundamentals of Differential Equations, 9th Edition: R. Kent Nagle & Edward B. Saff & Arthur David Snider
  47. New Dimensions in Women's Health: Linda Lewis Alexander & William Alexander & Judith H. LaRosa & Helaine Bader
  48. Essentials of Economics, 10th Edition: Bradley Schiller
  49. Purchasing and Supply Management (The Mcgraw-Hill Series in Operations and Decision Sciences), 15th Edition: P. Fraser Johnson
  50. Biological Science, 6th Edition: Scott Freeman,Kim Quillin,Lizabeth Allison,Michael Black,Emily Taylor,Author
  51. Critical Thinking: A Students Introduction, 5th Edition: Gregory Bassham & William Irwin & Henry Nardone & James Wallace
  52. Music for Sight Singing, 6th Edition: Thomas E. Benjamin & Michael Horvit & Robert S. Nelson
  53. Microsoft Office 2013: Advanced (Shelly Cashman Series): Misty E. Vermaat
  54. Entrepreneurship, 4th Edition: Andrew Zacharakis & William D. Bygrave & Andrew C. Corbett
  55. Blockchain: Ultimate guide to understanding blockchain, bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, smart contracts and the future of money: Mark Gates
  56. Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, Comprehensive, 16th Edition: Deborah Morley & Charles S. Parker
  57. The Boundaries of Australian Property Law: Hossein Esmaeili & Brendan Grigg
  58. New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2016, Introductory: June Jamrich Parsons
  59. California Politics and Government: A Practical Approach, 14th Edition: Larry N. Gerston & Terry Christensen
  60. Foodservice Organizations: A Managerial and Systems Approach, 8th Edition: Mary B. Gregoire
  61. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 8th Edition: James Rachels
  62. Social Science: An Introduction to the Study of Society, 16th Edition: Elgin F. Hunt & David C. Colander
  63. Psychiatric Nursing, 7th Edition: Norman L. Keltner & Debbie Steele
  64. Microsoft SQL Server 2016: A Beginner's Guide, Sixth Edition (Beginner's Guides): Dusan Petkovic
  65. The Analytic Hospitality Executive: Implementing Data Analytics in Hotels and Casinos (Wiley and SAS Business Series): Kelly A. McGuire
  66. Diseases of the Human Body, 6th edition: Carol D Tamparo
  67. Principles of Corporate Finance (Mcgraw-Hill/Irwin Series in Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate): Richard Brealey
  68. Gerontological Nursing, 8th Edition: Charlotte Eliopoulos
  69. How to Use SPSS®: A Step-By-Step Guide to Analysis and Interpretation, 9th Edition: Brian C Cronk
  70. What is Life? A Guide to Biology, 3rd Edition: Jay Phelan
  71. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Seventh Edition): Colin Renfrew & Paul Bahn
  72. Problem Solving and Program Design in C, 8th Edition: Jeri R. Hanly & Elliot B. Koffman
  73. Economics, 4th Edition: Paul Krugman & Robin Wells
  74. Strategic Brand Management, Global 4th Edition: Kevin Keller
  75. Winningham's Critical Thinking Cases in Nursing: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric, 6th Edition: Mariann M. Harding & Julie S. Snyder
  76. Maternal-Newborn Nursing The Critical Components of Nursing Care, 2nd Edition: Roberta Durham & Linda Chapman
  77. Object-Oriented Software Engineering: An Agile Unified Methodology: David Kung
  78. Ebersole and Hess' Gerontological Nursing and Healthy Aging, Canadian 1st Edition: Theris A. Touhy & Kathleen F Jett & Veronique Boscart & Lynn McCleary
  79. Varcarolis's Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Canadian 1st Edition: Margaret Jordan Halter
  80. Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 34 Nations, Clusters of Nations, Continents, and Diversity, 6th Edition: Martin J. Gannon & Rajnandini K. Pillai
  81. Principles of Contract Law, 3d (Concise Hornbook Series): Robert Hillman
  82. Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults, 7th edition: David Gallahue & John Ozmun & Jacqueline Goodway
  83. Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology (Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Physiology), 4th Edition: Susan Blackburn
  84. Japanese From Zero! 1: Proven Techniques to Learn Japanese for Students and Professionals: George Trombley
  85. Making Sense of Mass Education: Gordon Tait
  86. Starting Out with Java: From Control Structures through Objects, 6th Edition: Tony Gaddis
  87. Grant's Dissector, 16th edition: Alan J. Detton
  88. Principles of Information Systems, 13th Edition: Ralph Stair & George Reynolds
  89. OAuth 2 in Action: Justin Richer & Antonio Sanso
  90. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: Geralyn Ochs
  91. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Access 2016: Comprehensive: Philip J. Pratt & Mary Z. Last
  92. Mastering the Requirements Process: Getting Requirements Right, 3rd Edition: Suzanne Robertson & James Robertson
  93. CISSP Guide to Security Essentials, 2nd Edition: Peter Gregory
  94. Hacking Exposed Windows: Microsoft Windows Security Secrets and Solutions, 3rd Edition: Joel Scambray
  95. Campbell Biologie: Gymnasiale Oberstufe (Pearson Studium - Biologie Schule) (German Edition): Neil A. Campbell & Jane B. Reece
  96. Linux Hardening in Hostile Networks: Server Security from TLS to Tor (Pearson Open Source Software Development Series): Kyle Rankin
  97. Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, 6th Edition: Charles Alexander
  98. A History of Western Society Since 1300, Advanced Placement: John P. McKay & Bennett D. Hill & John Buckler & Clare Haru Crowston & Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks & Joe Perry
  99. Ways of the World with Sources for AP*: Robert W. Strayer & Eric W. Nelson
  100. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Volume I: To 1550, 6th Edition: Richard Bulliet & Pamela Crossley & Daniel Headrick & Steven Hirsch & Lyman Johnson
  101. Voyages in World History, Volume 2, 3rd Edition: Valerie Hansen & Ken Curtis
  102. Probability & Statistics for Engineers and Scientists with R: Michael Akritas
  103. Crime, Victims and Justice: Essays on Principles and Practice: Marijke Malsch
  104. Contemporary Business, Canadian Edition: Louis E. Boone & David L. Kurtz & Michael Khan & Brahm Canzer
  105. Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 4th Edition: Mikell P. Groover
  106. Accounting, 26th Edition: Carl S. Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  107. Social Psychology, 9th Edition: Elliot Aronson & Timothy D Wilson & Samuel R. Sommers
  108. Cracks in the Schoolyard—Confronting Latino Educational Inequality: Gilberto Q. Conchas
  109. The Internet of Risky Things: Trusting the Devices That Surround Us: Sean Smith
  110. Foundations of Business, 5th Edition: William M. Pride & Robert J. Hughes & Jack R. Kapoor
  111. Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills: Darril Gibson
  112. Social Psychology, 12th Edition: David Myers
  113. Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User-Friendly Manual, 6th Edition: Sherry Diestler
  114. Prioritization, Delegation, and Assignment - E-Book: Practice Excercises for the NCLEX Exam: Linda A. LaCharity & Candice K. Kumagai & Barbara Bartz
  115. Qualitative Inquiry in Neoliberal Times (International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Series): Unknown
  116. The Official (ISC)2 Guide to the SSCP CBK, 4th Edition: Adam Gordon & Steven Hernandez
  117. Fundamentals of Futures and Options Markets, 9th Edition: John C. Hull
  118. Practice Makes Perfect: Advanced French Grammar: All You Need to Know For Better Communication (Practice Makes Perfect Series): Véronique Mazet
  119. New Grade 9-1 GCSE Chemistry: AQA Revision Guide: CGP Books
  120. New Grade 9-1 GCSE Biology: AQA Revision Guide: CGP Books
  121. New Grade 9-1 GCSE Physics: AQA Revision Guide: CGP Books
  122. Project Management For Dummies, 4th edition: Portny, Stanley E.
  123. PMP Project Management Professional Review Guide, 3rd Edition: Kim Heldman
  124. PMP® Certification All-in-One For Dummies®, 2nd Edition: Snyder, Cynthia
  125. PMP® Exam Simplified: Updated for 2016 Exam (PMP® Exam Prep Series Book 4), 5th Edition: Aileen Ellis
  126. The Complete ‘Ace Your PMP® Exam’ Series: Essential PMP® Concepts Simplified: Shiv Shenoy
  127. Crack the New (2016) PMP® Exam in 4 Weeks: Using Simple, Proven, Step-by-Step Approach (Ace Your PMP® Exam): Shiv Shenoy
  128. PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide, 4th Edition (Certification Press): Joseph Phillips
  129. Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives, 5th Edition: Michael E. Kraft & Scott R. Furlong
  130. Working With Challenging Parents of Students With Special Needs: Jean Cheng Gorman
  131. Statistics in Practice, 1st Edition: David S. Moore & William I. Notz & Michael A. Fligner
  132. Introduction to Programming with C++,International Edition, 3rd Edition: Y Daniel Liang
  133. Focus on Personal Finance, 5th Edition: Les Dlabay & Robert J. Hughes & Jack Kapoor & Melissa Hart
  134. Leviathan: Thomas Hobbes, Edwin Curley
  135. Exploring Microsoft Word 2016 Comprehensive (Exploring for Office 2016 Series): Mary Anne Poatsy & Linda Lau & Lynn Hogan
  136. Real World Psychology, 2nd Edition: Catherine A. Sanderson & Karen Huffman
  137. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, 13th Edition: James M Henslin
submitted by bookseller10 to Textbook_releases [link] [comments]

Weekly Forex & Crypto Analysis by PrimeXBT

Weekly Forex & Crypto Analysis by PrimeXBT
The week has started and was led by the only title and header around all economic news which is “US-China trade wars”.
US-China trade wars in general had its effect on all markets, including cryptocurrency. The United States wants to tighten cryptocurrency use and claimed that it’s been used by smugglers and drug-dealers and pointed out that most of the transactions are made in China.
This week BTC tried to break $10500 on Monday, August 26th and was rejected, the price then was floating between $10400-10300 and continued the correction down to $10027. Uncertainty in the BTC has ended when the price hit $10400 again and showed a massive drop to $9366. We will point out several reasons of this week’s drop. The drop could be a result of an update in the US when rumors on crypto-currency taxation became real. Several notes sent by the IRS to crypto-currency holders pushed some investors to get rid of the BTC and led to a major sell.
The Wright and Kleiman case brings another reason to worry about. If Kleiman family surely inherited billions of $ worth of Bitcoin, then they should declare IRS the quantity and pay state taxes. Most probably, when these BTC’s received if they exist, the Kleiman family will sell them, which will result another drop-down of BTC.
CME Exchange’s futures contracts for Bitcoin is expiring today, though the Exchange showed a record-high $515M daily trading volume in May, futures expiry date gave extra-strength to sellers.
The price by the time published is traded at $9608 per BTC, from the technical point of view the price still has to find greater grounds for another massive jump.
https://preview.redd.it/8f0tliwapnj31.png?width=1468&format=png&auto=webp&s=64a5214d8a583bd7b7f3dcdd5f3de63290697050
Though we can see that a double-bottom pattern in 1-hour chart and most likely BTC will test $9750
https://preview.redd.it/vib20xqcpnj31.png?width=1468&format=png&auto=webp&s=06b1a9de59c8c76ecc447b5e2b0a8d506a79c12b
CME Exchange will continue to offer Bitcoin futures which is a positive sign for the cryptocurrency and announcement of the release of ICE-backed Bakkt Bitcoin futures in September 23 could be that pump to get the price above $10K.

Now let’s move to Forex market

The pair to watch this week and the next week is EURUSD.
Economy of Germany which EU's locomotive and other countries are cars, has showed a slight 0.1% decrease in the second quarter of 2019 related to the previous quarter. We can never deny the fact that the EU union with all its economy and power of its currency is completely dependent to the economic well-being of Germany. If the third quarter of this year doesn't show mercy to Germany's economy or Germany doesn't change policies to not only stabilize but improve the economy, the EU should prepare well for recession.
Not only economic state of Germany but rumors and news and overall hype over Brexit and Italy's economic crisis are considered to be a sinker of Euro against USD. For Euro to gain power and for EURUSD to show an uptrend again, firstly all rumors and preparations on recession should be reduced to nothing and EU states should do the needful to prevent the new economic crisis.
This week’s economic data from Germany was not positive, IFO Business Climate was below forecasted 95.1 and 94.3 was announced, German GDP was -0.1. These were news which weakened the European currency, although the worst scenario was yet to come. Thursday, August 29 Germany made an announced on the unemployment, and the number was four times higher than on the previous unemployment change, 4K. Since the announcement EURUSD was showing downwards movement and plummeted to 1.0990
If no signs of progress are shown next week, especially if the German Manufacturing PMI numbers don’t show positive, the price will continue downtrend to 1.0950 and find the next support at 1.0850
https://preview.redd.it/cso52ruepnj31.png?width=1468&format=png&auto=webp&s=21e4bdfed18b0bcce872b8714efa4d5d8fdc8b71
The political tension between EU and UK, US and China last week showed us more-or-less unpredictable movements in US, China, HK, EU, UK stock market indices. Since the “trade-war” begun and US applying higher tariffs on Chinese goods and China taking counter-action the only gainers of these back-to-back pokes were Gold and Silver. Gold showed one more time that it’s the most trusted asset to invest. The price hit $1555 highs this week and is now showing signs of short-term correction being traded at $1526. Major Investment institutions such as UBS and Citigroup look positive on Golds new summit ascents. Mainly UBS has stated that the next week the price could reach $1600.
From the technical point we can see that the price is trying to break the barrier at 1530, and is still unlucky.
https://preview.redd.it/huvtsyugpnj31.png?width=1468&format=png&auto=webp&s=9ccae0383301cabe7b0b479bde81b72cee5aa81c
This could mean that if the support at $1520 is broken, the correction will continue to $1515 and $1507.
If the downtrend is impulsive the price will reach $1494, where it will find support and another upwards move shall be expected.
https://preview.redd.it/oyzz33oipnj31.png?width=1468&format=png&auto=webp&s=1ae2f71cb0fece2770bcff716bd59d39e7a9245d
At the other hand, confirmation of Gold’s uptrend move will be breaking of resistance at $1530 where the price shall face a mile-stone of resistances at 1545-1563-1571.
From the Global prospective we should follow the upcoming Manufacturing PMI’s announcements of Germany and the US, US Non-Farm payrolls and Unemployment rates. Pay a very close attention to announcements of these three states Australia, UK and Canada, as well. Report prepared by analysts from PrimeXBT.
submitted by Esabellaason to PrimeXBT [link] [comments]

GAINS Announcements

GAINS weekly recap week 35
🇵🇹🇰🇬 Portugal’s tax authority says crypto trading and payments are tax-free. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan proposes draft law to introduce crypto mining taxation. Why can’t they all be like Portugal?🤷‍♂️ 🇩🇪🇨🇳 The German Cabinet and Deutsche Bundesbank are working together on the issue of central bank digital currencies. Another country with far advanced plans is China, whose central bank will issue its state-backed cryptocurrency to seven institutions including Alibaba and Tencent soon. 🚀 Binance futures trading platform launches in September 🏦 Bakkt Warehouse will start Bitcoin Custody service on Sept. 6 🛫 Aircraft manufacturer Boeing joins Hedera Hashgraph council ⚔️ XRP community is threatening a ‘takeover’ if Ripple execs keep dumping
🔹 Cool tech fact: Google rents out goats from a company called California Grazing to help cut down the amount of weeds and brush at Google HQ!
💬 Quote of the day: "Problems are not stop signs, they are guidelines."— Robert H. Schuller
submitted by kafui-riks to CryptoNews [link] [comments]

Cryptocurrency taxation in Germany

Just reading an excellent summary of the German governments stance on cryptocurrency taxation by Dr. Julian Albrecht which was authored in July 2017. Seems like a very grey area and hoping to discuss and break it down: https://smp.law/EN/Briefing/Tax-treatment-of-crypto-tokens-in-Germany.php
He says: "Bitcoin – the best-known and, measured against its market capitalization, (currently still) most important crypto token – is, as a starting point, an economic asset; as such, its tax treatment is, in the first instance, comparable to that of coins, vintage cars or stamps. For private investors, this gives rise to the following consequences: Bitcoin-related gains which are realized by using capital (rather than by ‘mining’) and disposed of at a later point are tax-free, provided that the period between acquisition and disposal is at least one year (ten years if a token is capable of being used as an ongoing source of income) – a pretty interesting result considering that, in Germany, ever since the introduction of what is known as flat-rate withholding tax (Abgeltungsteuer), only very rarely is it still possible to achieve capital gains that are tax-free in Germany."
I found the following statement interesting: "ten years if a token is capable of being used as an ongoing source of income", but what does that mean? Does that include if you are a retired private investor and you own enough cryptocurrency that it becomes your primary source of income through sale/conversion into fiat? Or what if you hold a POS coin like Ether or Atoms that can potentially earn an income if staked; do they require a 10 year holding period perhaps unlike Bitcoin or monero?
....
Edit: Here is another link with an attached video provided by a poster . Perhaps a German speaker can summarise it in English: http://www.finanzgefluester.de/besteuerung-von-kryptowaehrungen/amp/
It asserts the following: "Capital gains tax is not applicable to cryptocurrencies. Even if the sale is income from capital assets." However, "If one were to generate interest or similar income from its cryptocurrencies, then capital gains tax would apply to these .
"On the other hand, disposal is tax-exempt if at least one year has elapsed between purchase and sale (365 days between purchase and sale). But if one generates interest from the crypto currency as mentioned above, then the period increases theoretically to 10 years, since the asset has served as a source of income."
submitted by ericcart to ethtrader [link] [comments]

In case you missed it: Major Crypto and Blockchain News from the week ending 12/14/2018

Developments in Financial Services

Regulatory Environment

General News


submitted by QuantalyticsResearch to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[SHARE][FREE DOWNLOAD] Textbook Megathread #3 PDF

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  1. Barron's CCRN Exam: Juarez, APN, CCNS, CCRN-K, Patricia
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  3. Cracking the AP Psychology Exam, 2017 Edition: Proven Techniques to Help You Score a 5 (College Test Preparation): Princeton Review
  4. Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology, 3rd Edition: Robert Weis
  5. Managerial Economics, 4th Edition: Luke M. Froeb & Brian T. McCann & Michael R. Ward & Mike Shor
  6. Writing that Works: Communicating Effectively on the Job, 12th Edition: Walter E. Oliu & Charles T. Brusaw & Gerald J. Alred
  7. Horngren's Financial & Managerial Accounting, The Financial Chapters, Global 5th Edition: Tracie L. Miller-Nobles & Brenda L. Mattison & Ella Mae Matsumura
  8. Biology: The Dynamic Science, 4th Edition: Peter J. Russell, Paul E. Hertz, Beverly McMillan
  9. CCENT ICND1 100-105 Exam Cram, 3rd Edition: Anthony Sequeira
  10. 31 Days Before Your CCNA Routing & Switching Exam: A Day-By-Day Review Guide for the ICND1/CCENT (100-105), ICND2 (200-105), and CCNA (200-125) Certification Exams: Allan Johnson
  11. Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century: Jeffry A. Frieden
  12. The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Environmental Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century (World Social Change), 3rd Edition: Robert B. Marks
  13. Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, 2nd Edition: Mary Crawford
  14. Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach, Global 8th Edition, : Joseph J. Martocchio
  15. Terrorism in the 21st Century, 7th Edition: Cynthia C. Combs
  16. Campbell Biology, Canadian 2nd Edition: Steven A. Wasserman
  17. Barron's ACT, 2nd edition (Barron's Act (Book Only)): Brian W. Stewart
  18. The Official ACT Prep Guide: ACT
  19. Ultimate Guide to the Math ACT: Richard Corn
  20. Corporate Communication (Irwin Business Communications), 7th Edition: Paul A Argenti
  21. Biological Psychology, 12th Edition: James W. Kalat
  22. Financial Accounting: IFRS, 3rd Edition: Jerry J. Weygandt & Paul D. Kimmel & Donald E. Kieso
  23. Society and Technological Change, 7th Edition: Rudi Volti
  24. Java Foundations: Pearson New International 3rd Edition: John Lewis & Peter DePasquale & Joe Chase
  25. University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman & A. Lewis Ford & Francis Weston Sears
  26. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, 2nd Edition: Debra J. DeWitte & Ralph M. Larmann & M. Kathryn Shields
  27. Essentials of Abnormal Psychology, 7th Edition: V. Mark Durand & David H. Barlow
  28. Finite Mathematics, 6th Edition: Stefan Waner & Steven Costenoble
  29. New Perspectives Microsoft Office 365 & Access 2016: Comprehensive: Mark Shellman & Sasha Vodnik
  30. Environment: The Science behind the Stories, 6th Edition: Jay H. Withgott & Matthew Laposata
  31. Digital Planet: Tomorrow's Technology and You, Introductory (Computers Are Your Future), 10th Edition: Ben Beekman & George Beekman
  32. Architecture and Interior Design: An Integrated History to the Present: Buie Harwood & Bridget May & Curt Sherman
  33. Curren's Math for Meds: Dosages and Solutions, 11th Edition: Anna M. Curren & Margaret Witt
  34. The Legal Environment of Business: Text and Cases, 10th Edition: Frank B. Cross & Roger LeRoy Miller
  35. Prentice Hall's Federal Taxation 2015 Comprehensive: Thomas R. Pope & Timothy J. Rupert & Kenneth E. Anderson
  36. Drug Use and Abuse: A Comprehensive Introduction, 9th Edition: Howard Abadinsky
  37. Davis's Canadian Drug Guide for Nurses, 15th Edition: April Hazard Vallerand & Cynthia A Sanoski & Judith Hopfer Deglin
  38. Psychology, 12th Edition: Carole Wade & Carol Tavris
  39. How to Nurse: Gweneth Hartrick Doane & Colleen Varcoe
  40. The Advertising Concept Book: Think Now, Design Later, 3rd Edition: Pete Barry
  41. Software, Infrastructure, Labor: A Media Theory of Logistical Nightmares: Ned Rossiter
  42. Organic Chemistry, 8th Edition: Paula Yurkanis Bruice
  43. Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change, The, Volume I, 3rd Edition: Henry M. Sayre
  44. Financial Accounting, 9th Edition: Robert Libby
  45. Preface to Marketing Management, 14th Edition: J. Paul Peter
  46. Fundamentals of Differential Equations, 9th Edition: R. Kent Nagle & Edward B. Saff & Arthur David Snider
  47. New Dimensions in Women's Health, 7th Edition: Linda Lewis Alexander & William Alexander & Judith H. LaRosa & Helaine Bader
  48. Essentials of Economics, 10th Edition: Bradley Schiller
  49. Purchasing and Supply Management (The Mcgraw-Hill Series in Operations and Decision Sciences), 15th Edition: P. Fraser Johnson
  50. Biological Science, 6th Edition: Scott Freeman,Kim Quillin,Lizabeth Allison,Michael Black,Emily Taylor,Author
  51. Critical Thinking: A Students Introduction, 5th Edition: Gregory Bassham & William Irwin & Henry Nardone & James Wallace
  52. Music for Sight Singing, 6th Edition: Thomas E. Benjamin & Michael Horvit & Robert S. Nelson
  53. Microsoft Office 2013: Advanced (Shelly Cashman Series): Misty E. Vermaat
  54. Entrepreneurship, 4th Edition: Andrew Zacharakis & William D. Bygrave & Andrew C. Corbett
  55. Blockchain: Ultimate guide to understanding blockchain, bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, smart contracts and the future of money: Mark Gates
  56. Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, Comprehensive, 16th Edition: Deborah Morley & Charles S. Parker
  57. The Boundaries of Australian Property Law: Hossein Esmaeili & Brendan Grigg
  58. New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2016, Introductory: June Jamrich Parsons
  59. California Politics and Government: A Practical Approach, 14th Edition: Larry N. Gerston & Terry Christensen
  60. Foodservice Organizations: A Managerial and Systems Approach, 8th Edition: Mary B. Gregoire
  61. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 8th Edition: James Rachels
  62. Social Science: An Introduction to the Study of Society, 16th Edition: Elgin F. Hunt & David C. Colander
  63. Psychiatric Nursing, 7th Edition: Norman L. Keltner & Debbie Steele
  64. Microsoft SQL Server 2016: A Beginner's Guide, Sixth Edition (Beginner's Guides): Dusan Petkovic
  65. The Analytic Hospitality Executive: Implementing Data Analytics in Hotels and Casinos (Wiley and SAS Business Series): Kelly A. McGuire
  66. Diseases of the Human Body, 6th edition: Carol D Tamparo
  67. Principles of Corporate Finance (Mcgraw-Hill/Irwin Series in Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate),12th Edition: Richard Brealey
  68. Gerontological Nursing, 8th Edition: Charlotte Eliopoulos
  69. How to Use SPSS®: A Step-By-Step Guide to Analysis and Interpretation, 9th Edition: Brian C Cronk
  70. What is Life? A Guide to Biology, 3rd Edition: Jay Phelan
  71. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Seventh Edition): Colin Renfrew & Paul Bahn
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WARNING: Bitcoin Maximalists Chamath Palihapitiya & Raoul Pal BOMBSHELL: The Markets WILL IMPLODE Is Bitcoin Taxable? Bitcoin drive gains currency in Germany Tax laws in Germany when buying Bitcoin or Cryptocurrency Germany, Peter Schiff & CNBC  LIVE BTC USD 6500  Free Bitcoin Profit Analysis 2018

German taxpayers are subject to what is called the world income principle. It doesn’t matter to the tax office whether this profit was realised on an exchange in Germany, Singapore or elsewhere. A tax obligation results from bitcoin transactions in the jurisdiction where the investor or seller is subject to taxation. One should also not be ... Taxation on Bitcoin transactions for German retail investors . A sale could be the sale of Bitcoins for euros via a trading platform. However, the use of Bitcoins as a means of payment also constitutes a sale, if the Bitcoin owner uses Bitcoins to pay for the acquisition of goods and services. In both cases, private sales transactions– also known as "speculative transactions" – exist ... Some German tax experts and lawyers argue that private mining should not be taxed, as a service isn’t being given. Masternode Taxation . A masternode has a managing role and unique functions that regular nodes (computing devices) on a blockchain aren’t capable of. masternodes can create immediate transactions and private transactions, in addition to voting on system proposals. When ... Example of the German ‘Bitcoin tax’ For the sake of this example, let’s suppose you have been resident in Germany for the past few years. On 1 January 2017, you bought 1 BTC for $1,000. If you sold it on December 15th to enjoy a little Christmas bonus worth $17,000, you would have to pay your capital gains tax over the $16,000 profit. If, however, you had held your Bitcoin past 1 January ... The Taxation of Bitcoin, Ethereum and Other Cryptocurrencies ... The German tax authorities have still not taken a stance on whether this operation is a non-taxable event at all or is taxed according to exchange or value separation principles (Tausch- bzw. Wertabspaltungsgrundsätze). The tax treatment of Crypto Airdrops, in which participants in a blockchain project are provided with crypto ...

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WARNING: Bitcoin Maximalists Chamath Palihapitiya & Raoul Pal BOMBSHELL: The Markets WILL IMPLODE

Germany Won't Tax Bitcoin Users For Using The Cryptocurrency As A Means Of Payment - Duration: 4:50. WORRR 840 views. 4:50. Bitcoin Profit System - Why It's A Scam To Avoid! Germany Won't Tax Bitcoin Users For Using The Cryptocurrency As A Means Of Payment - Duration: 4:50. crypto 832 views. 4:50. Bitcoin supporters promise banking 'revolution' - Duration: 2 ... Bitcoin is slowly joining the big league of currencies. Germany has become the first country to accept the digital money as legal tender - recognized in law and for tax purposes. Early Investor and Bitcoin Maximalist Chamath Palihapitiya reveals ON TV that the market is propped up by false narratives and greedy CEO's who are literall... Germany Won't Tax Bitcoin Users For Using The Cryptocurrency As A Means Of Payment - Duration: 4:50. WORRR 840 views. 4:50. Pulling the Plug on Crypto Mining - Duration: 8:54. ...

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